Class Notes (835,673)
Canada (509,326)
Sociology (768)
SY102 (16)

Sociology 102 unit 11- theory.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

Kimberly Ellis- Hale

Sociology 102: Unit 11- THEORY  Sociological task- develop a wide ranging system of ideas or general explanations about social relations  These general explanations are called theories  The history of modern sociological theories started with the Age of Reason/ Enlightenment  Zeitlin: identifies 6 social conditions that helped the emergence of Enlightenment 1. Political Revolution- resulted in the disorder and break down of traditions  Scholars were challenged to explain order and disorder, stability and the change that occurred after these revolutions 2. Industrial Revolution- technological advances and development of large industries  Changes caused a migration of ppl from farms to urban centers to find employment  Scholars were concerned with the disruption of traditional social relations and the conditions of working class 3. Rise of Socialism- ppl in poverty start looking for another way of life  Scholars want to develop a social system with more equality in ownership and means of production 4. Urbanization- everyone travelling from villages to cities caused overcrowding, pollution, nose, traffic, crimes  Scholars wanted to discuss these issues and make them part of research agenda 5. Religious Transformation- fundamental religious change- emergence of Protestantism  Scholars interested in religion in relation to social stability and change 6. Growth of Science- new scientific methods develop  Natural sciences (chemistry, physics and biology) enjoyed recognition- Sociology adopted the methods of natural sciences  These transformations were related to the development of Enlightenment as a period of intellectual development  Philosophers challenged traditional ways of life and helped to develop grand, general and abstract systems of ideas  Enlightenment scholars used methods from natural sciences and applied them to the social world to help discover the social laws governing human behaviours  Auguste Comte- coined term sociology  Intellectual mentor- Claude Hernri de Saint- Simon- major influence on Comte  Saint Simon: society needed immediate reform by industrialists an bankers  Comte: theoretical work should take precedence over reform  Comte: Evolution of society is paralleled by evolution of the individual mind  Three stages of development 1. Affective- ppl are governed by biologically innate propensities (drive for food, sexual instinct) 2. Cognitive- contemplation, mediation, deduction and inductive reasoning are sources of human conduct 3. Active- courage in undertaking, prudence in execution and firmness in accomplishment become important  Comte: people tend to be devoted believers in childhood - critical metaphysicians in adolescence - and natural philosophers in adulthood  Each branch of human knowledge in passed successively through 3 different theoretical conditions  Comte: every successive stage grew out of the proceeding one  These stages correspond to the stages in the development of social organization, the types of social unites, and of the material conditions of human life  3 stages of development in human society: 1. Theological stage- humans explain events through actions of gods  Human mind is seeking the essential nature of beings, and supposes all phenomena are produced by supernatural begins  Priest manage society, military men rule it  Ex. Egyptian, Greek and roman polytheism 2. Metaphysical stage- events were understood in terms of innate essence or original causes  Focus was on critique of theistic doctrines and emphasis on free intellectual inquiry in order to organize the social world based on its inherent natural causes  Ex. Middle Ages  State arose into prominence at this time 3. Scientific or positive stage- science became major force of knowledge, and the search for absolute notions, and origin and destination of universe  Causes of phenomena were abandoned ¸scholars want to study observable scientific relationships and their laws  Stage was governed by industrial administers and scientific moral guides  Comte: insisted on importance of intellectual knowledge of social development. But also included other causes of change and development  Population increase, increase of division of labour, the family  Comte: 3 most important sources of spiritual ties 1. Language- vessel in which thoughts of proceeding generations are expressed, and w/o it, no social order would be possible 2. Religion- indispensible source of legitimization for gov’ts 3. Division of Labour- links humans to their fellows and contributes to human solidarity by creating functional interdependency among individuals  Karl Marx- divided human societies into modes of production  5 great modes of productions: 1. Primitive communism- classless  Land and resources are plentiful and population is small- no need for private ownership  But population increases, division of labour expands and surplus profits appear  Pop increases, tribes come into contact with each other- wars over scare resources  Winning tribe takes resources an enslaves members of defeated tribe  Leaders start confiscating wealth and slaves for themselves- establish hierarchies and class system  Marx: class is defined in terms of the individual’s relationship to the organization of product
More Less

Related notes for SY102

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.