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Department
Sociology
Course
SY321
Professor
Darren Mulloy
Semester
Fall

Description
Homosexuality -transgendered people defy society’s gender norms and blur widely accepted gender roles -some are transsexualsindividuals who want to alter their gender by changing their appearance or resorting to medical intervention -they identify w/ and want to live fully as members of the “opposite” sex -homosexuals are people who prefer sexual partners of the same sex and bisexuals are people who enjoy sexual partners of either sex -homosexuality has existed in every society -some such as ancient Greece have encouraged it -more frequently, homosexual acts are forbidden -most laws target male rather than female homosexuality -the scientific consensus is that homosexuality “emerges for most people in early adolescence w/o any prior sexual experience…it is not changeable” -sociologists less interested in the origins of homosexuality than in the way it is socially constructed (way it is expressed and repressed) -homosexuality has become less of a stigma mainly due to 2 factors 1.Sexologists: psychologists and physicians who study sexual practices scientifically Alfred Kinsey: among the pioneers of this field -interviewed thousands of men and women and concluded that homosexual practices were so widespread that homosexuality could hardly be an illness -provided a scientific rationale for the belief in the normality of sexual diversity 2. It was the sexual minorities themselves who provided he social and political energy needed to legitimize sexual diversity to the public -yet opposition and antipathy to homosexuals is still strong -research suggests that some anti-gay crimes may result from repressed homosexual urges on the part of the aggressor -others occur b/c males want to prove their toughness and heterosexuality, others b/c of boredom, others believe they were defending themselves from aggressive sexual propositions, and other said they wanted to punish them for moral transgressions Gender Inequality The origin of gender inequality: 3 major socio-historical processes account for the growth of gender inequality: 1. Long distance warfare and conquest -women and men used to be about equal in status up until the point at which warring peoples invaded old Europe -civilizations were based on hierarchical social structure in which men were dominant and their religions gave primacy to male warrior gods 2. Plow agriculture -required strong adults to remain in the field all day for much of the year -reinforced principle of private ownership of land -men on average stronger than women (who were also restricted by pregnancy and childbirth) -thus made men more powerful socially and owned land that would be passed on to the eldest son 3. The separation of public and private spheres -during early phase of industrialization, men’s work moved out of the household and into the factory and office and became wage or salary workers -while men went public, women remained in the domestic or private sphere -the idea soon developed that this was the natural division of labour The earnings gap today: 4 main factors contribute to the gender gap in earnings: 1. Gender discrimination -involves rewarding men and women differently for the same work 2. Women tend to be concentrated in lower wage occupations and industries -occupational sex segregationthe concentration of women in certain occupations and men in others 3. Heavy domestic responsibilities reduce women’s earnings 4. Work done by women is commonly considered less valuable than work done by men b/c it is involving fewer skills -thus we see that gender gap in earnings is based on several social circumstances rather than any inherent different b/w men and women Male aggression against women: -rape is one of the most violent forms of sexual assault -rapists have typically been regarded as deranged but research o
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