Class Notes (839,076)
Canada (511,183)
WS100 (237)
Lecture

Feminism.docx

15 Pages
67 Views

Department
Women & Gender Studies
Course Code
WS100
Professor
Charles Davidson

This preview shows pages 1,2,3. Sign up to view the full 15 pages of the document.
Description
Women and Gender Exam Notes 10/15/2012 4:29:00 PM Basic Terms and Concepts Sex  Biological / Scientific term - difference between male (x,y) and female (x,x)  Genitals o “Differential” o Damaged through birth or surgrey o “Abnormal” - intersexuality  Hormones o Different - geological area, time period o Male and females have both (estrogen and testosterone) o Age - hormones decrease (menopause)  Chromosomes o Chromosomal testing - cannot determine gender o Women can have - (x,y) o Male can have - (x,x) Gender  Behavioural, attitudinal, psychological and emotional differences between male (masculine) and female (feminine)  Changes over time - what is considered to be masculine / feminine  Changes from one society to the next o Behaviours - reverse gender roles  Families assign genders as a child o Family has 6 boys - need a female role Gender Roles  Characteristics - culturally appropriate o Masculinity (men and boys) o Femininity (women and girls) Patriarchy  General pattern of male dominance o Powerful institutions (family, education system, politics, law)  Universal, there is no matriarchy - female dominant society o Rare women take a lead role (queen, president, prime minister) Compare Women’s Status  Art o Literature of society (music, paining, magazines, television) o Impression of how society views women  Body type  Economics o Poor women o Pay o Types of jobs o Financial values compared to men’s jobs  Education o Literacy rates o Average level - women’s education to men’s education  More men getting masters degree o Underdeveloped countries - not allowed to go to school  Law o Legal representation? o Not considered as a “person” - 1930’s o Civil rights? o Role - creating and enforcing rights o Crimes  Experience most  Penalized for  Politics o Can vote o Do not have political representation  Sexuality o Right to access and control over their bodies o Access to medical care?  Free  Easy to get to Feminism st  1 wave - liberal, focus on basic legal equality  2 ndwave - Marxist/socialist, focus largely on work  3 rdwave - ongoing and unnamed, focus on diversity 1 Wave Women 10/15/2012 4:29:00 PM Enlightenment Roots th  Late 17 century to French Revolution 1789  Emphasis on the individual as rational being  Every human capable of rational thought - women were not included, were not considered human being  Women of the enlightenment o Lived under couverture - “one flesh” doctrine / common law  Held no property, custodial or legal / civil rights during marriage o Not considered to be human beings o Protected by husband or father o Rape - women were not composited (husband or father got it) o No legal right over money o No real power  Powerful roles - host salons (“rooms”) o Support thinker, make ideas, connecting, encouraging  European Feminism - coming out of enlightenment o Took up where liberal enlightenment thinkers left off  persons were created rational o Mary Wollstonecraft  Concerned - education, power, goals limited do to attracting the “right” husband  Argued against claim - women and men are naturally different o John Stuart and Harriet Mill  Husband and wife team  Agreed with liberal enlightenment theory  Women’s status - measure of a society’s civilization and level of social evolution  Women treated the same - able to contribute to battering society  John Mill - women were educated and given the same options as men they would still choose to be mothers  Liberal Feminism in North America o Late 1700s – early 1800s  Closely aligned with abolitionism o Sarah Grimke  Work rooted in the anti slavery movement  Ability to reason, Bible as moral basis - women’s condition was like that of slaves  Owned by their husbands and masters  Denied freedom of opportunity - education o Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony  Apply natural rights ideas to women - Declaration of Sentiments  Used motherhood - argument for women’s education  Concerned with suffrage  Liberal Feminism in Canada o Concerned with higher education  Professional employment, suffrage(the vote), temperance (prohibition of alcohol, legal personhood o Access to higher education - Maritimes in 1860’s  Restricted conditions - education, fear of race suicide, limited access to professional jobs o Suffrage required Married Women’s Property Act: stages  School vote - municipal vote  Provincial vote - Manitoba 1916  Quebec - 1940  Federal vote (men in military)  1917  Full vote - 1918 o Granted personhood (senate seats) - 1929 led by the famous five First Wave Liberal Feminism - General Summary  2 phases o First liberal feminist theories - developed in Enlightenment Europe o Liberal activism - North America + Europe in 1800’s – 1930’s  Concerned - attaining equality with men through practical, legal demands  Used petitions, letter writing, mock demonstrations, public speaking, non violent means of getting attention o Others used rioting - arrested and hunger strikes o Argued female suffrage  kinder more ethical society, better motherhood Successes and Criticism  Success o Access to higher education o Getting women into universities o Access professions - teacher, doctors, lawyers, missionaries o Female suffrage (women to vote) o Considered legal persons - own property, business, ages appear in court  Criticisms o Liberal feminism - abandoned its abolitionist roots  Increasingly argued for improved opportunities (racist + classist basis) o Education - change private inequality (undervaluing women’s work + access to professional jobs) o Men were better and equality - most important women needed Second Wave 10/15/2012 4:29:00 PM History  From Marxist theory  Historical Materialism o Major change in subsistence production (hunting, gathering, farming, industrial revolution) -- changes in organization of society, work and family  Argued primitive societies were communal o Agricultural - accumulated surplus o Women became first form of private property  Domestic labour is essential to society and family survival o Value - created and consumed mainly in home  Industrialization - production form private to public sphere o Production from family workers o Household goods to mass produce commodities o Each person - directly tied to how much money they earn, not the products of their labour o Belief - women’s domestic labour is a natural extension of biological roles (home work seem valueless) nd  2 wave officially launched (in USA) by 1963 publication of Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique o Frustration of the isolated, suburban, unemployed, housewife and mother rang true with so many women Causes of Women’s Oppression  Capitalism, and the unequal division of labour  Marxist – Socialist feminists - focus on economic dependence of women, gender division of labour, women’s relation to work  Paid public labour producing goods - domestic labour, child care are not productive  Focus on domestic labour - enables capitalist system o Function at a fraction of real cost o Generating appearance that labour is unpaid (valueless) Major Aims and Goals  Abolish workplace discrimination o Both paid and unpaid for all working women Specific Issues or Values  Double Day o Women work for wages + continue to assume the bulk of domestic work  Gendered Division of Labour o Different types of work as designated as males or female appropriate o Awards those jobs performed by men - higher pay and social status  Occupational Segregation o Clustering of women in types of work o Caring work (service industry and retail jobs)  Pay Inequality o Make consistently less then men across all types of statistical categories  Glass Ceiling o Career aspirations are th
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit