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ACTG 2011 (48)
Lecture

All the notes for Fall 2010

41 Pages
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Department
Accounting
Course Code
ACTG 2011
Professor
Alex Garber

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Inventory is assets held for sale or assets used to produce goods that will be sold
as part of the business.
Different categories of inventory
Raw Materials:inputs into production process
-
Work-in-progress of WIP inventory:partially completed product to date
-
Finished goods:inventory that has been completed and ready for sale
-
IFRS
Requires inventory to be valued at costs on the balance sheet
Net Realizable Value (NRV) of inventory is less than costs, the inventory must be
written down to its NRV. LOWER OF COST and MARKET RULE.
Costs of inventory includes all costs incurred to ready the inventory for sale or
use: purchase price, import duties, and other taxes, shipping and handling, and any
other costs directly related to the purchase of the inventory
IFRS requires that the cost of inventory include the cost of materials, labor
costs plus an allocation of overhead incurred in the production process.
-
Overheadis the costs in manufacturing process other than direct labor and
direct material.
-
However, IFRS does not give specific directions for determining which costs
and how much of them should be included.
-
Thus, different entities can determine the cost of inventory differently, which
impairs comparability.
-
Perpetual and Periodic Inventory Control Systems
Perpetual Inventory control system: keeps an ongoing tally of purchases and
sales of inventory.
Journal Entries:
Cr. Accounts Payable/Cash
Dr. Inventory
To record the purchase of inventory
For the purchase of inventory:
-
Cr. Revenue
Dr. Cash
To record the sale of inventory
For the sale of inventory
-
Cr. Inventory
Dr. Cost of goods sold
To record the sale of inventory in a perpetual and the
corresponding cost of sales
Periodic Inventory control system: WKHLQYHQWRU\DFFRXQWLVQ¶WDGMXVWHGZKHQHYHU
Chapter 7: Inventory
October-13-10
5:33 PM
MyNotes Page 1
www.notesolution.com
Periodic Inventory control system: WKHLQYHQWRU\DFFRXQWLVQ¶WDGMXVWHGZKHQHYHU
a transaction affects inventory. Purchases are accumulated in a separate purchases
account. The balance at the end of year is determined by counting the inventory.
Cost of sales = Beginning inventory + Purchases ±Ending Inventory
Journal Entries:
Cr. Cash/ Accounts Payable
Dr. Purchases
For the purchase of inventory:
-
Cr. Revenue
Dr. Cash
For when inventory is sold
-
At the end of the period:
Dr. cost of sales
Cr. Expenses
Dr. Inventory (You debit inventory because you convert the
remaining amount into an asset at the end of the year)
Determine cost of sales using the formula above, followed after is an adjusting entry:
Internal Control
Under perpetual inventory, an inventory count is done to determine the amount of
inventory that maybe stolen, lost, damaged or destroyed.
If inventory is not counted at the end of the period, the amount on the b/s can be
overstated and expenses would be understated.
(Stolen inventory is an expense in the period the theft occurs or is discovered)
Information on stolen inventory is rarely, if ever reported in the f/s. It is usually
accounted for in the cost of sales.
:LWKSHULRGLFLQYHQWRU\LW¶VQRWSRVVLEOHWRGHWHUPLQHZKHWKHUDQ\WKHIWKDVWDNHQ
place as there are no records to compare to the physical count.
Inventory Valuation Methods
Three cost formulas allowed by IFRS:
First in first out (FIFO)
1.
Average cost
2.
Specific identification
3.
When inventory is homogeneous or interchangeable then average cost or FIFO
cost formulas can be used.
-
IFRS requires specific identification for inventory items that are no
LQWHUFKDQJHDEOHIRUH[DPSOHHDFKFDURQDGHDOHU¶VORWKDVGLIIHUHQWPDNHVDQG
models, thus each has a vehicle identification number.
-
FIFO Method
The costs associated with the inventory that was purchased for produced first is
the cost expensed first
-
With FIFO, the cost of inv reported on the b/s represents the cost of inv most
-
MyNotes Page 2
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With FIFO, the cost of inv reported on the b/s represents the cost of inv most
recently purchased or produced
-
The oldest costs are the first ones matched to revenues
-
Cost formulas address the flow of costs, not the physical flow of goods
Average Cost Method
The average cost of the inventory on hand during the period is calculated and
the average is used to determine cost of sales and ending inventory
-
Average cost simply assumes all inv units have the same cost and the cost of
individual units of inv is lost
-
Specific Identification
assigns the actual cost of a particular unit of inv to that unit of inventory
-
The inventory cost reported on the b/s is the actual cost of the specific item
-
Specific identification provides some opportunity for management to manipulate
F/S, if there are identical items with different costs in inv, managers could
choose sell the most expensive to lower net income and the sell the least
expensive to increase net income.
-
It provides an opportunity for income management that the other two do not!
-
Comparison of Different Cost Formulas
When inventory prices are rising, FIFO cost of sales will always be lower than
average cost method of cost of sales and FIFO gross margin and net income
will always be higher.
-
If cost of inventory remains constant over a period of time all methods will yield
the same results.
-
When FIFO is used, the inventory costs reported on the B/S are most current as
a result it gives a close approximation of the replacement cost.
-
Replacement cost is the amount it would cost to replace inventory, or any
asset, at current prices.
-
Stakeholders who are interested in predicting future cash flows might find a
FIFO valuation useful.
-
The current ratio will be higher with FIFO when prices are rising
-
On the I/S the costs associated with the oldest inventory are expensed to cost
of sales first under FIFO. This means COGS is less current
-
Thus, gross margin and net income are poor indicators and the effects could be
misleading to stakeholders
-
Average cost provides a b/s measure less current than FIFO but the cost of
sales is more current
-
FIFO corresponds to physical flow of the goods
-
Average cost used when prices are rising because it yields a lower net income
figure. (Used by businesses with tax minimization objective)
-
Lower of Cost and Market Rule
According to IFRS, inventory on hand at the end of period must be evaluated
according to the lower of cost and market (LCM) rule.
-
It requires inventory to be recorded at its net realizable value, is NRV is less
than cost.
-
NRV is the amount the entity would receive from the selling of the inventory,
less any additional costs.
-
MyNotes Page 3
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Description
Chapter 7: Inventory October-13-10 5:33 PM Inventory is assets held for sale or assets used to produce goods that will be sold as part of the business. Different categories of inventory - Raw Materials: inputs into production process - Work-in-progress of WIP inventory: partially completed product to date - Finished goods: inventory that has been completed and ready for sale IFRS Requires inventory to be valued at costs on the balance sheet Net Realizable Value (NRV) of inventory is less than costs, the inventory must be written down to its NRV. LOWER OF COST and MARKET RULE. Costs of inventory includes all costs incurred to ready the inventory for sale or use: purchase price, import duties, and other taxes, shipping and handling, and any other costs directly related to the purchase of the inventory For manufacturers and processors: - IFRS requires that the cost of inventory include the cost of materials, labor costs plus an allocation of overhead incurred in the production process. - Overhead is the costs in manufacturing process other than direct labor and direct material. - However, IFRS does not give specific directions for determining which costs and how much of them should be included. - Thus, different entities can determine the cost of inventory differently, which impairs comparability. Perpetual and Periodic Inventory Control Systems Perpetual Inventory control system: keeps an ongoing tally of purchases and sales of inventory. Journal Entries: - For the purchase of inventory: Dr. Inventory Cr. Accounts Payable/Cash To record the purchase of inventory - For the sale of inventory Dr. Cash Cr. Revenue To record the sale of inventory Dr. Cost of goods sold Cr. Inventory To record the sale of inventory in a perpetual and the corresponding cost of sales Periodic Inventory control system: 9K0L3;03947\,..4:39L839,/M:890/ZK030;07 www.notesolution.com Periodic Inventory control system: 9K0L3;03947\,..4:39L839,/M:890/ZK030;07 a transaction affects inventory. Purchases are accumulated in a separate purchases account. The balance at the end of year is determined by counting the inventory. Cost of sales = Beginning inventory + Purchases Ending Inventory Journal Entries: - For the purchase of inventory: Dr. Purchases Cr. Cash/ Accounts Payable - For when inventory is sold Dr. Cash Cr. Revenue At the end of the period: Determine cost of sales using the formula above, followed after is an adjusting entry: Dr. cost of sales Dr. Inventory (You debit inventory because you convert the remaining amount into an asset at the end of the year) Cr. Expenses Internal Control Under perpetual inventory, an inventory count is done to determine the amount of inventory that maybe stolen, lost, damaged or destroyed. If inventory is not counted at the end of the period, the amount on the b/s can be overstated and expenses would be understated. (Stolen inventory is an expense in the period the theft occurs or is discovered) Information on stolen inventory is rarely, if ever reported in the f/s. It is usually accounted for in the cost of sales. :L9K507L4/L.L3;03947\L983495488L-O094/09072L30ZK09K07,3\9K019K,89,N03 place as there are no records to compare to the physical count. Inventory Valuation Methods Three cost formulas allowed by IFRS: 1. First in first out (FIFO) 2. Average cost 3. Specific identification - When inventory is homogeneous or interchangeable then average cost or FIFO cost formulas can be used. - IFRS requires specific identification for inventory items that are no L3907.K,3J0,-O01470[,25O00,.K.,743,/0,O078O49K,8/L11070392,N08,3/ models, thus each has a vehicle identification number. FIFO Method - The costs associated with the inventory that was purchased for produced first is the cost expensed first - With FIFO, the cost of inv reported on the b/s represents the cost of inv most www.notesolution.com - With FIFO, the cost of inv reported on the b/s represents the cost of inv most recently purchased or produced - The oldest costs are the first ones matched to revenues Cost formulas address the flow of costs, not the physical flow of goods Average Cost Method - The average cost of the inventory on hand during the period is calculated and the average is used to determine cost of sales and ending inventory - Average cost simply assumes all inv units have the same cost and the cost of individual units of inv is lost Specific Identification - assigns the actual cost of a particular unit of inv to that unit of inventory - The inventory cost reported on the b/s is the actual cost of the specific item - Specific identification provides some opportunity for management to manipulate F/S, if there are identical items with different costs in inv, managers could choose sell the most expensive to lower net income and the sell the least expensive to increase net income. - It provides an opportunity for income management that the other two do not! Comparison of Different Cost Formulas - When inventory prices are rising, FIFO cost of sales will always be lower than average cost method of cost of sales and FIFO gross margin and net income will always be higher. - If cost of inventory remains constant over a period of time all methods will yield the same results. - When FIFO is used, the inventory costs reported on the B/S are most current as a result it gives a close approximation of the replacement cost. - Replacement cost is the amount it would cost to replace inventory, or any asset, at current prices. - Stakeholders who are interested in predicting future cash flows might find a FIFO valuation useful. - The current ratio will be higher with FIFO when prices are rising - On the I/S the costs associated with the oldest inventory are expensed to cost of sales first under FIFO. This means COGS is less current - Thus, gross margin and net income are poor indicators and the effects could be misleading to stakeholders - Average cost provides a b/s measure less current than FIFO but the cost of sales is more current - FIFO corresponds to physical flow of the goods - Average cost used when prices are rising because it yields a lower net income figure. (Used by businesses with tax minimization objective) Lower of Cost and Market Rule - According to IFRS, inventory on hand at the end of period must be evaluated according to the lower of cost and market (LCM) rule. - It requires inventory to be recorded at its net realizable value, is NRV is less than cost. - NRV is the amount the entity would receive from the selling of the inventory, less any additional costs. www.notesolution.com - If NRV is less than its costs the inventory must be written down to NRV - The amount write-down is the difference between the cost and the NRV, and is reported as a loss or expense on the I/S in the period the impairment is identified - A write-down is a reduction in the carrying amount of inventory to some measure of market value - When an asset is written down to zero is called a write off - Journal entry: Dr. Cost of Sales or Inventory Loss Cr. Inventory To record write down of inventory - A write down reduces inventory on the B/S, increases expenses, and decrease net income - Can be disclosed on a separate line on the I/S or included in the COGS with disclosure in the notes - IFRS requires a write down to be reversed if the NRV of inventory increases in a subsequent period - It is written back up to its original cost - Journal Entry: Dr. Inventory Cr. Cost of Sales/ Inventory Loss To reverse the write down of inventory Valuing Inventory at Other than cost - Replacement cost- what it would cost to replace - Inventory worth $1000, replacement cost is $1100 - Journal entry to record at replacement cost: Dr. Inventory $100 Cr. holding gains/loss $100 - Journal Entry to record when inventory is sold for $2500: Dr. Cash/Accounts receivable $2500 Cr. Revenue $2500 Dr. COGS $1100 Cr. Inventory $1100 - Under IFRS Dr. Cash $2500 Cr. Revenue $2500 Dr. COGS $1000 Cr. Inventory $1000 Financial Statement Analysis Issues - The inventory turnover ratio Inventory Turnover ratio= Costs of Sales/ Average Inventory - measures how quickly the entity is able to sell its inventory - ;07,J0:2-0741/,\8L3;03947\43K,3/ Avg = 365/ inventory turnover ratio - indicates the number of days it takes an entity to sell its inventory www.notesolution.com
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