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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 1000
Peter Tsasis

Ch.1 – The challenge of Business: Managing the internal and External Forces Business in Canada - U.S a good neighbour? - More U.S expansions and relocations are ending up in Canada - The Economist Intelligence Unit rates Canada no.1 among 60 countries for the years 2005 -2009 in its general business environment ranking. - Canada is expected to be the best place in the world to conduct business during the next 5 years (EIU) Business & Industry th - today Canada ranks 11 among countries worldwide in its gross domestic product and per capita GDP. - Manufacturing is the key part of the Canadian economy - More then 14% of Canadians work in manufacturing operations Employment & Labor - Canadian workers are highly skilled and reasonably priced - Their wages have remained fairly stable (Alberta oil rich $5.90 min wage since 99) Competitiveness - Canada is leader in KPMG’s study which compared business operating costs in 11 countries and 98 cities worldwide. - Labor costs are key to being cost competitive regardless of industry since compromise from 605- 80% of the costs of most business operations (stuarts MacKay of MMK consulting) Taxes & spending - no shortage of incentives to assist business taxpayers in Canada - in the latest fiscal year, corporate income taxes accounted for slightly more than 8% of federal, provincial, territorial and local government revenue. - Consumption & personal income taxes are more than half of government revenues in the latest fiscal year (stats Canada) Internal Context of Business - three fundamental concepts o people o structure o strategy Effectively managing people - doesn’t matter whether non-profit, small business or giant multinational all business need to be managed - organizations are made up of people and this factor is clearly that we must carefully examine Developing a suitable organizational structure - organizational structure is a deliberately planned network or patter of relationships that exist among individuals in various roles or positions. - This includes the formal hierarchy of authority, grouping of work and the rules or procedures that control behaviour in the organization Generating a winning business strategy - deciding what strategies the organization should pursue is a key task of managers External Context of Business - Scholars have defined the environment of an organization along two dimensions: o The organizations specific or task environment o The organizations general environment - each factor in an organization’s external environment can be considered as existing in two spheres: o specific sphere: or environment within which the organization directly operates o general sphere: or environment that would encompass the external environments of all organizations in a society Specific sphere - organizations have external stakeholders - stakeholders are groups that have direct influence on the organizations ability to obtain resources and generate outputs - they have some kind of stake or interest in the organization - could include customers, competitors, unions, distributors, creditors, the local public and the government. General Sphere - the sphere surrounding the organizations specific sphere is referred to as the general sphere - the forces that make up this sphere shape the specific sphere of the organization - general sphere factors include: economic, competitive, technological, societal, global, and political forces. Economic Forces - The economic environment acts as a strong influence on the present and future prospects of any organization. - We can also consider the international economic environment as exerting an influence on Canadian organizations. Competitive Forces - Competitive forces operate at two levels of any organization - As mentions organizations will have its own set of competi
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