• Under Trudeau represented an interventionist approach to develop a more
independent Canadian oil industry, such as buy back Canadian company from
• But creating a conflict between the role or provincial and federal government
and the creation of government owned crown corporation- Petro- Canada.
However, government actions spur pipeline development for export and
competitions, this in turn opened up more production through exploration
along the pipeline route.
• Later created National Energy Program. Let oil and gas price trend towards
the same as Canadian domestic and Global market price. However, making
the rate below global market rate led to greater consumption, and create
distrust between Ottawa and the western provinces. Many oil companies left
Alberta in response to NEP. unemployment↑
• NEP also promoted greater Canadian control and ownership of the domestic
• Donald Ziraldo and Karl Kaiser developed this winery in Niagara region.
• LCBO granted them to produce wine in Niagara and sell their products in
LCBO Toronto wine stores.
• 4 components of winemaking: inputs, climate, soil, artisanship.
• In order to change consumers’ perceptions of Ontario wine standard, they
innovate a new ice wine.
• Their Inniskillin wine and ice wine both got awards.
• The ice wine spanned the globe, opened up another distributing channel to
export their wine.
Free Trade Agreement (Effective on Jan 1 , 1989, under Prime Minister Brian
• Government offered sponsor experimental vineyard to give wine makers a