(Relentless change pp. 1-14)
Laying the foundations, 1805-1905
- Mid 19 century (1850’s) British north America was made up of ;United province of Canada ( modern day Quebec and Ontario)Nova scotia New
Brunswick PEI Newfoundland Vancouver island
- The interior contained 3 territories; 1)Ruperts land ( much of the north, all the area around the Hudson bay). 2)North west territories. 3) New
- The British north America act;
The act, also known as the BNA Act, comprises a major part of the Constitution of Canada. The Act entails the original creation of a federal
dominion and sets the framework for much of the operation of the Government of Canada, including its Federal structure, the House of
Commons, the Senate, the justice system, and the taxation system. Ruperts land was then added to the dominion of Canada in 1869 after it
was acquired from the HBC.
- Two major public policy statements were particularly significant in the government playing an important role in the business and economic
BNA act ( British North America act); 1867. Other than creating the dominion of Canada, the act also allocated responsibilities between the
federal and the provincial authorities. The federal took responsibility of things like regulation of commerce, currency and banking.
National policy; 1878. The National Policy was a Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonald's Conservative Party in 1876
and put into action in 1879. It called for high tariffs on imported manufactured items to protect the manufacturing industry. Macdonald
campaigned on the policy in the 1878 election, and defeated the Liberal Party, which supported free trade. Three main parts; 1) The
settlement of the west 2) The building of a transcontinental highway 3) The adoption of protective tariff. This was influenced by the heavy
reliance on trade.
- Through the BNA act, the federal government was given powers over currency, banking as well as life insurance. This played an important role in the
development of Canada’s financial system.
- The passage of the Bank act in 1871 ensured a sound currency and a nationally regulated banking system.
- One of the requirements of the Bank Act was that it is renewed decennially ( every 10 yrs) to ensure that legislators will periodically update the Act in
order to keep pace with developments in the financial system.
- In the early years of the confederation, most major financial ithtitutions were banks. But also, important life insurance companies as well as
mortgage, loan and trust companies had emerged. In the early 20 century, there were 37 banks in Canada, with HQ mainly around the Toronto and
Other financial intermediaries
- Although banks started off to be the dominant financial intermediaries, mortgage loan companies, life insurance companies and other financial
institutions soon took over. The government responded by supporting this growth and even appointing superintendents to oversee some of those
-Among the earliest entrepreneurs were the French fur traders. They helped out the HBC. After that, some traders fro Montreal started developing
trade and competing with HBC. The financial systems that were in place made it simpler to obtain capital which helped increase the number of
Large non financial corporations th
- Agriculture played a dominant role in the economy in the mid 19 century and was by far the greatest employer. Railroad building was another great
business as well as mining. Some manufacturing companies then started to emerge.
o In the mid 19 century the principal method of transportation where steamboats on lakes and rivers and the stagecoach on land.
Thing changed dramatically with the introduction of the railway construction industry. At first, it was composed of hundred of
small companies that eventually merged into large corporations by the end of the 19 century. In time, they became the largest
business in Canada. At that time Canada had one transcontinental railway; the Canada pacific railway (CPR).
o In the mid 19 century, the extractive sector, focusing on fish, fur, forest and farm, was made up of many small, family oriented
businesses. Then coal was discovered and became the next big thing. Major companies emerged working on extracting coal and
o Forestry, like mining, was dominated by many small companies, but eventually only those that merged and formed large
corporations survived. There was a relative decline in lumber and an increasing demand from the US, and only big companies were
able to manage with capital that came in from Montreal and Toronto.
o Local utilities were used to provide utilities to municipalities. Then with technological breakthroughs, enterprising business men
mobilized large amounts of capital that permitted the creation of electrical public utilities in Canada and abroad.
o Municipalities granted companies operating rights and attempted to regulate them.
o Bell was established in 1880 in Montreal. It was the first company in the telecommunication sector.
o Early 20 century, a number of important developments affected bell and the telephone industry in general. One of the changes
was the government intervention. The federal government put bell operations under the supervision of an independent regulator
o Manufacturing played a less significant role than agriculture in the mid 19 century. However, by the early 20 century,
manufacturing had grown equal to agriculture in terms on % of GDP.
o The development of electricity attributed to this happening. In 1905, the 2 largest were Massey Harris and Canadian General
o The manufacturing industry widely supported increasing tariffs to help them grow, which the government complied with and
raised by 35% on manufactured imports.
o During that time, the evolution from manufactures of consumer goods to producer oriented enterprises that sold through dealers
or middlemen picked up.
o Retail in the mid 19 century was a local affair with barter being the main means of conducting transactions. Since then, it has
grown drastically. In 1905, Timithy eaton established the first national department store chain in Canada. Class 2
Origins of financial stability in Canada; the bank act of 1871
- The enormous growth in global trade and investment also required the expansion of government oversight and international
cooperation on financial governance.
- Extraordinary and unprecedented steps have been required by governments across the world to rescue their banks from default.
- Canadian banks were seen as more stable than the rest of the world, largely due to the way the very origins of banking law and
regulations were set in the 19 century.
- The political goal was financial stability and the managerial challenge was to create the institutions and regulatory framework to carry
Origins of financial stability in Canada; the bank act of 1871
- There was deterioration in the American banking system. The four provinces then agreed that they should have a national currency
and a national banking system. They also needed to establish public confidence in the financial system in order to have economic
Foundations of banking and currency in Canada together with proposals for a bank act for the dominion of Canada
Banking in early Canada;
-There was no financial system in Canada before passing the powers from France to Brittan from 1759 to 1763. Family’s kept their
savings in ‘specie’ which were gold and silver coins. Even when the British took over from 1759, they had no interest in working out
finance and money issues. A reliable form of money, either for means of payment or to store value, or to even help governments with
their own finances did not exist. People in different areas used to hold different currencies from different countries. In upper Canada,
people used to have a York currency.
-The shortage of specie led to various improvisations of paper money. Merchants in Quebec issued small promissory notes, British
army used its own paper money.
- Merchants had great difficulty in financing their exports of flour, potash, lumber and fur, while also facing trouble importing clothes,
sugar, salt and farming tools.
First bank of the United States;
-US was facing the same problems as Canada, this also was a huge problem for Canada since the states was a major trading partner. In
1791, the first bank of the US open in Philadelphia. Before that, the US constitutions specifically assign the power to issue and regulate
coinage to the federal government and defined gold and silver as the only legal tenders. The bank was modelled on the bank of England
which was founded in 1694. Some, even in congress, did not support the bank. The charter collapsed by congress and never again did
they have a national banking system
The earliest bank in Canada
- It was mainly through the example of the national bank of Scotland which started in 1824, that the transition was gradually made to
the present system of a few large banks with numerous branches
- Bank of Montreal received provincial charter and royal assent in 1822, but was in operation since 1818.
- The most critical regulation in the BMO articles was that the liabilities of the bank could not exceed three times its paid in capital, and
the paid in capital has to be in specie, gold or silver. The bank was also limited to ten years.
The bank of upper Canada
- BMO started opening branches all over, this alarmed the merchant community in upper Canada, partly because BMO was subject to
the French civil code or lower Canada, but more generally because it meant that it would increase their dependence on Montreal. The
Bank of Upper Canada obtained the first upper Canadian charter in 1822. It formed a virtual monopoly. Later on more banks started to
appear in the 1830’s.
The struggle among banks for market share
- At confederation, there were 38 banks while BMO had a 25% market share.
- At that time, the US had a free banking system. The licensing of the banks became state decisions. At that point, virtually anyone with
enough capital could open a local bank with no branches. This was very problematic. There were numerous bank failures, a lot of
fraudulent paper money.
- Some were advocating following the British system, in which the bank of England is the sole issuer of paper money in small
The rise of the Canadian dollar
- For the first time, there was a fixed relationship between the three currencies; dominion dollar, US dollar and British pound.
- The result was the establishment of a uniform federal act, replacing all provincial charters and including the following specific
Minimum capital of 500,00 of which 10% is to be paid up
Power to issue notes in dominations of 4 or more
Double liability on shareholders, to be paid before realizing on the assets of the failed bank
Total bank liabilities not to exceed three times the capital
Mandatory revision by parliament
One vote per share
Prohibition against extending credit on real property
Maintain a 6% interest ceiling Case 3
Canada’s first great manufacturing enterprise; The story of Massey Harris
- In 2003, the condo market in Toronto took off. Low interest rates, high demand and a strong economy made it possible for many to purchase condos.
Massey’s entrepreneurial roots ( 1802-67)
- Daniel Massey Sr. immigrated into Canada from the states and went into farming.
- The population at that time was growing quickly, and there was an increasing demand for virgin pine and other woods.
- What he did was rent a land, cleared it from trees and sold the wood, made it suitable for farming, and then sold it off to others. This was really in demand since
recent immigrants needed a place and a farm to start off, he provided them with that. He repeated the process often to his good fortune.
- He was clear sighted enough to know that change was coming, that the market for his trees was declining as was the number of land buyers.
- He decided to start investing in trade and started importing a machine that would help in farms from the states. He then went into producing farm tools and
- Crop failures, economic hardship, and famine in Europe led to an influx of impoverished immigrants to the new world in the 1840’s seeking relief and a better life.
- He established the Newcastle foundry and machine manufacturing company. He bought licences to produce American designed machines to sell to Canada and
- His son took over, started modernizing and improving the factory and its operations. They started to design and produce their own machines.
- At that time, railways started to connect major and minor cities ( 1850’s)
- Farming was becoming more attractive due to some trade agreements with the US and Brittan, farmers had more capital and started to buy more machines.
- Although immigration levels stayed high, there was a decrease in available man power, and so farmers saw a need for labor equipment. The decrease in man
power was due to rail construction and to the fact that Canada is too big, they started spreading out more.
- Competition became both national and international.
Reciprocity treaty of 1854
- Treaty between upper Canada and the states regarding a mutual list of goods that they would trade between themselves tariffs free.
- This treaty helped reduces Harts timber and input costs.
- At that time, hart was also able to benefit from protectionism from Britain where he bought British steel and iron for cheaper than US competitors.
- The civil war resulted in higher prices for wheat which resulted in many switching to farming. Therefore, there was again an increase in demand for Harts
- He did a sales catalogue that featured his products. He did promotional campaigns. He established direct links with his customers. He also extended credit to his
Canada’s first manufacturing enterprise (1867-1910)
The first dominion day; july 1 1867, province of Canada no more. It was now split into two provinces, Ontario and Quebec and joined with two maritime provinces,
nova Scotia and new Brunswick.
- Massey started filling European orders, he was the first Canadian manufacturer to export Canadian made machinery.
- The move abroad was made possible due to the rise of steam powered ships. It became cheaper for him to ship products to Europe than to send them on rail to
- By 1888, harts son, Walter had set up a massey agency in Australia, and sales in Europe were growing very well.
- Hart became sick and passed on the work to his son, Charles
The move to Toronto
- Demand became higher than the capacity of the Newcastle plant. He needed a new factory, he chose Toronto for its banks, its labor pool and many railway
Domestic rivalry and consolidation
- There was a very large increase in the number of competitors and many companies were driven out of the industry.
- They bought a company that was struggling financially in 1881.
- At the time of intense rivalry, macdonalds national policy promised much higher tariffs and an expanded list of products in which the tariff would be applied to.
Massey lashes out
- The national policy with its high tariffs continued to pose a challenge for the massey firm. He decided to go against it publically. After time, tariffs were reduced.
The merge of Massey and Harris.
- Both massey and harris had established many separate distribution networks around the country. They emerged in 1891. They became Massey- Harris company.
Other competitors also merged.
- Farms were two to three times larger than in Ontario and Quebec and there was an increasing population.
- Massey and competitors ignored the west at the beginning and so many American competitors dominated that market.
How does Protectionism work?
1) Degrees of Intervention 2) Persuasion (Minimum) 3) Manipulation of the tax system 4) The awarding of government contracts 5) Granting subsidies and tax
BUT, Economic Losses from Tariffs Often Exceed their Benefits.
Remember, there are Non-tariff barriers too: refers to any action other than a tariff that restricts International trade:1) Quotas
2) Licensing 3)Regulations
ALSO, Political Realities Ensure Protectionist Policies
When economies are booming and jobs seem secure, most people tend to support free trade.
When recessions occur, many countries become more protectionist because of national interest and pressure from organized labor and other interest groups.
The creation of the CNR
- July 1917; the war was going on, major number of Canadian casualties, English Canadians were pro conscription (forcing to join the army) and French
Canadians were totally against it.
Summer 1917; the railway mess
-The royal commissions recommended that the government take over the Canadian northern railway to save it from its financial problems.
- There were many problems at that time. The introduction of the military services act in 1917 led to riots and demands for money as well as manpower to
support the war. A temporary income tax was put in place. Pressure was mounting for a federal election with widespread support growing for a union
government, a coalition of conservative and English speaking liberals.
-Of the issues that were facing the Canadian government (ex. controlling the sale of alcohol, election rights to women, inflation,) there was a complete separate
mess called the railway mess. There were three transcontinental railways built for a population of almost 8 million. There was excessive capacity for the
- According to Robert Borden, who was the PM in 1917, the solution as for the government to take over the Canadian northern and consolidate several other
railway lines, which would eventually result in the creation of the largest crown corporation in Canadian history; the Canadian National railways. The CN.
Sir Wilfrid Laurier’s railway policy - 1896, the liberal party was led by Laurier, a French Canadian, and it won the elections and formed the government of Canada.
-He supported the national policy of McDonald. (Spreading the country from sea to sea, settlement in the west)
- In 1903, Laurier pronounced that the 20 century belonged to Canada and authorized the construction of a second transcontinental railway.
- East was full of railways and the west was undergoing major changes and railway construction was increasing.
-Laurier could accept the idea of governments constructing railways but was against governments operating them.
-His policy led to a proliferation of railways and mush waste of the publics money. It invited a flood tide of railway construction.
A flood tide of railway construction
- The government officially recognized the Canadian northern railway to be the country’s third national railway.
- The Canadian northern continually asked for money from the government and handouts were given in great amounts numerous times.
- At first, it was doing well, transporting millions of customers and millions of goods.
-For their capital, it was split among stocks, funded debt and government assistance.
-With the break of the war in 1914, the problems- capital cost overruns, overcapacity, inadequate rolling stock, all became more evident.
-“The problems were exacerbated by the fact that the British government banned the export of capital, and the London market had been the main source of
Canadian railway funding.”
The penalty stage of the railway development
- Nationalized- making it public owned, by the government.
- Continuing war causing more and more problems. At this point, freight traffic was reducing greatly, passenger numbers were still high but the decrease in
shipments resulted in a decrease of 20% in their net earnings.
-The grand trunk railway and the Canadian northern (the new ones) were suffering more than the CPR. Weren’t even covering costs. Government bought the
national transcontinental from the grand trunk pacific in 1915. The grand trunk, the parent company, could not afford to run it anymore.
-Canadian railway and the grand trunk, if collapsed financially, would cause huge problems (loans, notes). They needed a lot of money and to be in a good
position for credits to be able to fund the ongoing war. The government formed a royal commission to help decide on the issue composed of three people.
They each delivered a split decision in 1917.
-The American chairman delivered the minority (not in agreement with the majority of the people) report and dissenting view.
- Smith ( the chairman of the commission) recommended three main approaches,
1. The Canadian northern take over the grand trunk pacific lines in the west and to provide completion to the CPR in that part of the country
2. In eastern Canada, the grand trunk do the same with the Canadian northern eastern lines
3. The government take over and operate the uneconomic route that ran across the Canadian shield from Quebec to Manitoba, for both the Canadian
northern and the grand trunk.
-The majority report recommended that all the railways of Canada be nationalized, except for the American lines and the CPR.
-The nationalization would include the Canadian northern, the grand trunk, the grand trunk pacific, the intercolonial, and the national transcontinental.
-The new company would own the rail lines and the government would be responsible for the interest on the existing securities (loans).
-CPR wanted to be included but the government refused since CPR owners still wanted a share of the profits.
- A bill was introduced in 1917 placing all government owned railways under the board of railway commissioners and another bill to purchase the northern
The best choice in unfortunate circumstances
- In December 1917, PM Borden went to the elections as the leader of the coalition unionist party, made up of traditional conservatives and anglo liberals. Won
- One of the new governments priorities was to acquire both the grand trunk railway and its subsidiary, the grand trunk pacific.
- Government owned other public utilities but many, including Wilfred laurier, opposed owning the railways.
-Negotiations with the grand trunk began in 1918 and lasted for two years. The federal government wanted to acquire the feedings of the grand trunk into
ontraio and quebec. But the grand trunks strategy was to convince them to take the grad trunk pacific off its hands. They didn’t reach an agreement and the
government waited it out.
- In 1919, they could no longer run their pacific line and the government appointed the minister of railways
to manage it. In that same year, a bill was proposed to acquire the grand trunk was presented to the house of commons.
- The two main arguments against the bill were;
1. The government should take over the grand trunk pacific subsidiary but allow the grand trunk parent to continue operating it
2. If the grand trunk parent were too close to bankruptcy, the government should let it go bankrupt rather than take over a long proposition.
- For the next 70 years, Canada had two major railroads competing with each other. One, a crown corporation, CN, owned by the government, and the other,
owned by shareholders, the CP.
What should Arthur Meighen have done?
- The roots of the railway mess lay in the previous governments failure to create one transcontinental line to compete with the CPR back in 1903. The approval
of the third railway mounted even more problems.
The CN today, the most efficient carrier in north America
-The year of 1923 was the first year of consolidation of the grand trunk railway and all other units of the national system. This new railroad would be an even
larger enterprise than the CPR.
-Right from its inception, its been considered a white elephant, a terrffic drain on governemtn.
- IN 1995, after nearly 8 decades in government hands, the railway was privatised. Its been doing amazing. Very efficient. Very profitable.
Neo-Conservatism takes hold of western nations, starting with the election of Margaret Thatcher(1979) in Britain and followed by the elections of Ronald
Reagan in the US and Brian Mulroney in Canada. 1) Privatization, sliming down of the civil service, competitive treaties like NAFTA become the norm. 2) Mike
Harris’ “Common Sense Revolution” is a prime example of Neo-Conservative ideals.
The Canadian automobile industry
The early automotive industry in Canada
-After the first world war, Canada was second only to the united states in vehicle production and per capita ownership of automobiles, and it was also the third largest
market in absolute terms, after the united states and great Brittan.
- MacDonald’s national policy and Sir Wilfred Laurieres imperial preference allowed Canada to develop a domestic auto manufacturing industry under the protection of a
tariff wall and at the same time to take advantage of preferential treatments for exports to the British Empire. (advantage of Emperial Preference)
- Tariffs were then seen as having outlived their usefulness and they made matters worse for the automobile industry, especially during the depression, and eventually
Manufacturing and government policy
- Ontario, in 2004, became north America’s largest automobile producer. - It all started when Gordon McGregor went to Ford to ask him for a license to produce ford
cars in Canada. - The high tariffs, especially ones set in the national policy, forced major car producers to produce in Canada.
The rise of the automobile industry in Canada
- Automobile industry was born in Canada in 1904 when McGregor got the license and rights to manufacture and sell ford vehicles in Canada. By 1920, it became the
largest automotive enterprise in the British empire. -Sam McLaughlin was a co-owner of a carriage manufacturing company along with his brother George and his father Robert. Sam wanted to invest in automobiles and
start building them but his dad opposed. In 1907, Sam decided that he wanted to build the Buick in Canada. He signed an agreement to build the “McLaughlin” with
Buick motors. These cars had Canadian designed bodies and American built Buick engines.
- The 35% tariff that was placed in automobiles was set in hope of protecting manufacturers of carriages, buggies and bicycles.
- Both companies would benefit as those who wanted to licences already had carriage manufacturing plants and changing them to automobile production plants would
be easier than opening completely new ones. Also, they needed new sources of lending to come from Canadian banks. They also benefited from manufacturers of parts
in Canada. Prior to expansion they used to outsource them. Overtime, parts and materials were increasingly sources in Canada, including steel, iron, brass and fabric.
- Both manufacturers reduced their costs by outsourcing a few productions to within Canada. They also limited the number of models offered in order to achieve higher
volume of parts for materials. - A combination of factors, the tariff wall, scarce capital and an increasing demand, worked to Canada’s advantage.
- The growth in the auto industry can also be attributed partly to reinstatement of the British imperial preference in 1897 through negotiation by PM laurier.
-Canada’s proximity to the US and its membership in the empire gave Canada a unique position.
- Canada’s membership in a vast international network of colonies and dominions gave it another economic advantage.
- Under the British preference system, these markets gave Canadian manufacturers favourable tariff treatment over US manufacturers. This meant that US companies
used their Canadian units to export cheaper products to imperial nations around the world.
-The Canadian industry also reaped the benefit of a reversal of seasons; sales in southern markets such as Australia, New Zealand and south Africa peaked at just the
period when the Canadian market was in the winter slump. This allowed for smoother production and employment schedules.
-Eventually, ford also opened assembly plants in places where cared could be better adapted to local markets all over the empire. By the mid 1920’s, ford in Canada has
wholly owned subsidiaries in Australia, India, Malaya and south Africa.
- It was the limited free trade agreement Canada had with the US in 1854- 1866, and now again..
- Ford was happy about it, he believed that they will start producing more efficiently in Canada.
The sale of the McLaughlin motor car company to general motors
- After some time, the Mclaughlin business completely gave up on the carriage business and became a producer of motor vehicles exclusively.
- Sam sold the company to GM for 5 million dollars, it became GM of Canada.
The great war, recession, recovery
-The main impact of the great war was the full employment. With earnings high, people were now able to afford a car, and so in an indirect way, the war drove vehicle
demand higher and production increased.
-The end of the war saw a sever economic downturn, and it was not until the mid 1920’s that this was reversed and recovery achieved.
-After is shaky beginnings as a field of entrepreneurs, the automobile industry became growing, prosperous, and maturing industry throughout the 1920’s.
-Despite the disappearance of the Canadian automotive firms, Canada emerged as the second largest producer of vehicles in the world.
The Robb budget of 1926
- In 1926, a budget presented by the minister of finance, James Robb, saw a tariff adjustment was proposed as well as a limited abolition of the excise tax. This resulted
in a reduction of taxes. -There was also an encouragement to improve part production in Canada and to receive tax cuts if 50% or more of the car was manufactured in
The confrontation on the budget
-Sam opposed the tariff reduction and met with the finance minister to express concern. When they announced it, he closed GM Canada. The manager of the GM saw
that this tax reduction would benefit the Canadian plant since it will help meet the increased demands and is located closer to the manufacturers of the parts. Canadian
operations could actually prosper under the budget provisions. He reopened the Oshawa plant.
Why lower the tariff?
-If the liberal government was to survive in power, it needed to satisfy voters, especially those in the west who resented paying higher prices for automobiles in Canada
than south of the border. They blamed the higher prices on the tariff in place. The government removed the tariff and reduced the requirement of 50% content to 40%
based on total factory output. - Car industry grew rapidly.
Final years of prosperity
-Production reached an all time peak in 1929.
-People developed loyalty for the ford car, they waited for the new ford models instead of switch to new makers.
Full speed in reverse; the great depression
-Conservatives won majority in government.
-When the depression hit, disposable income dropped precipitously and discretionary purchases plummeted. Consumers held on to their cars instead of trade them in for
-Spare production capacity was a chronic problem throughout the 1930’s, compounded by protectionism.
Reversal of tariff policy
- By 1931, the government increased the tariff again. There was also an introduction of a excise tax and there was a ban on the import of used vehicles.
-These new tariffs and bans would reduce exports, drive up domestic prices, depress demand, and worsen over capacity problems.
About face on the tariff, again; 1936 and onward
- They reduced the tariff again according to the board’s recommendations. Further, the Canadian content provisions were streamlined and simplified.
- The changes recommended by the tariff board encouraged trade and commerce between Canada and the unites states, benefited consumers with lower prices and still
provided a level of protection for the Canadian automotive industry.
- The government really played an important role in the auto industry in Canada.
- Many supported a reciprocity treaty saying that it will help industries survive and flourish. Many were against, saying that it is a risky adventure that threatened
Canada’s identity and economic base.
Eaton’s; from the great depressions to the challenge from Simpsons- sears
- The formation of Simpsons – Sears happened in 1952. Sears was an American retail giant and Simpsons was the number two Canadian department store.
- The formation would provide Canadian consumers with a different shopping experience that would complement an unprecedented change in urban demographics and
- At that time, Eaton’s was the leader in Canadian retail. In 1952, they also had the leader in department store sales. They had a strong position in the upscale market.
Had many retail outlets, offices, factories, and a life insurance company.
The good years
- In 1869, timothy Eaton began business and followed three fundamental policies; cash only, a one price system that eliminated bargaining, and the guarantee of goods
satisfactory or the customers money refunded.
- Over the next thirty years, a catalogue was launched, a factory was built in Toronto and buying offices were established in Paris and London.
- After timothy’s death, his son John opened factories in Montreal, Hamilton and Winnipeg as well as buying offices in Europe, the states and Japan.
-After John’s death, he passed on the company to his nephew Robert. - After entering into Montreal, they competed with the well-established operations of Morgan and Ogilvy.
- Then the great depression came and GDP fell, sales fell 33%.
- Eatons and other mass buyers began to demand lower prices for their manufacturers. Lower than what they can actually accommodate. As a result, many
manufacturers were forced to leave the business. Independant retailers who could not compete with the prices that department stores offered as a result of this buying
power, were fearful of being forced out of business as well.
- Many complaints from both independents and manufacturers came and the government of PM Bennett took notice.
H.H Stevens and the price spread inquiry
- PM Bennett was a conservative. Stevens was the minister of trade and commerce.
- Stevens blamed and criticized the practices of mass buying departments and their power of destroying the smaller retailers and manufacturers.
- Eatons and its fellow mass buyers quickly responded to the allegations. This resulted in the establishment of a committee of the house of commons to examine the issue
- The committee was established in 1934 and a price spread commission was established to investigate the issue of eatons employees making less than minimum wage.
They had very bad publicity at that time.
Changing of the guard; John David Eaton
- In 1942, John David, john Craigs son, became president of Eatons.
- Economic events were on John Davids side unlike his predecessor. Sales grew, there was an emerging middle class. This resulted in Eatons purchasing BC’s Spencer’s
- The post war emergence of the middle class and its accompanying effect on population patterns changed the nature of retailing to the detriment of department stores
generally. More people were moving out of the city to the suburbs.
- Chains stores, especially food chains, almost immediately followed the move into the suburbs. Additionally, the increase in per capita disposable income combined with
the mobility enabled by the automobile, increased competition from independent stores that carried more expensive, speciality items. Whether to follow this
demographic shift of to enhance ones appeal for the downtown shopper, became and important consideration for the large department stores.
A challenger emerges (1950-4)
- Simpsons was well established and known in Canadian retail. They had retail outlets in five large Canadian citifies as well as a thriving mail order business. They
concentrated on enhancing the shopping experience.
Sears in the 1930’s
- Robert Wood, the chairman of sears then, was a general in the army and was responsible for the distribution of labour and supplies and according to him it was similar
to the mass buying system of department stores.
- At that time, many acts and bills were proposed and implemented to control mass purchasers and department stores. Some of the acts aimed at protecting the
independent retailer from the chain store competition and some were also greatly supported by wholesalers eager to prevent large chain stores from buying directly
from the manufacturers for lower prices. Similar to Eaton, there was a negative public image of Sears and little support.
-Wood believed that achieving broad public support and cultivating a successful business were not mutually exclusive activities. He sought to enlist public support
towards a capitalist enterprise in a variety of ways.
- One way he aimed to do that is gain the support of bankers in the smaller American towns. The greater expense of doing larger amounts of business with many small
banks was determined to be worth the increased political and public support received.
-Other methods of gaining public support included providing agricultural scholarship funds, financing community improvement projects, and requiring store managers to
take prominent social and charitable roles in their stores community. He repeatedly insisted on the importance of corporate citizenship.
- His strategy of corporate citizenship, along with his managerial skills enable the company to reach total sales of more than 1 billion by 1945 and by 1952, sears was the
world’s largest retailer.
Working out a deal; The joint venture
- The JV between Sears and Simpsons was formed in 1952. Sears contributed 20 million in cash and Simpsons contributed its mail order business.
- The existing Simpsons stored would remain independent and new stores formed by this JV could open within a certain radius of the old stores.
- The department stores would be Canadian and not used as import stores but things would be run the sears way.
Capturing the new market; the growth of the suburbs
- After WW2, sears pioneered the building of stored far from city centers. They observed changing customer trends and followed them and adapted to them.
- With growth in people living in the suburbia and growth of automobiles, sears did the right think opening in suburbs.
- Simpsons- sears monitored changes in population and the population density of each area. They had an efficient central merchandising system.
- Eaton was concentrating on downtown while S-2 suburbs. Eaton’s had to deal with the problem of parking.
Accommodating consumer purchasing power
- The increased demand for suburban housing and greater mobility during this period was also accompanied by an increased demand for quality goods and large
- It was turning into a consumer driven economy.
-The increase in demand was stipulated by increasing income.
- There was also an increase in offerings of instalment credit where customers were able to pay the store back in instalments. This allowed an even large percentage of
the population to be able to make such purchases. The instalment credit enhanced the purchasing power of the majority of the population.
-The large debts incurred by a large percentage of the population in these instatement credits were seen by some as problematic and alarming.
- Simpsons-sears and Eaton’s both presented different forms of this credit. Eaton’s main credit system was a deferred payment plan whereby monthly payments would
be made by the customer but the item would not be directly received until all the payments were made.
Reaching out to the consumer; the catalogue
-They competed on who had bigger catalogues.
- Simpsons-Sears ceased paying the shipping costs and passed on the cost to the customer. Eaton’s continued to pay for shipping. S-S paid dearly in lost catalogue sales.
- While initially hurt by their addition of delivery charges, S-S introduced innovations that enabled the company to recover the ground it had lost to Eaton’s in the
catalogue business. They established catalogue sales office, an inventory system that would inform customers whether the product was in stock. Competition moved
from price to efficiency and distribution, and there S-S had the upper hand.
The mid 1950’s; The department store scene ; Eatons continued to have 50% M.S but was facing more intense competition from S-S (where they operated) and Hudson
bay company with its plans of expanding eastward.
Eatons should have: 1) Recognized the movement of people to suburbs. Developed a suburban store strategy – 50% of population by 1951 Toronto 82% growth and
developed a suburban store strategy to service these customers. 2) Eatons needed to consider younger families who did not have the time to come downtown to
focus on bringing the store to the customer. 3) Needed to identify the population growth areas and develop a store location strategy that anticipated the
development of these areas so that Eatons could capture these customers. 4) Needed to focus on a broader consumer demographic rather than just their loyal
customers who would be aging. This would allow the younger customer to relate to Eatons. 5) Recognized the need for customers not living near the downtown to
have accessible parking, therefore should have developed a parking strategy. 6)Needed a store sizing and merchandising strategy to deal with competition of small
independents and for smaller communities. 7) Eatons needs to change its Canadian Department Store banner being used in smaller communities to Eatons to build
the Eatons brand. 8) Eatons to enhance the convenience for customers, increase number of customers and for efficiency needed to develop community agents or
catalogue sales offices for customers who shopped where there was no store. 9) Needed to develop stronger management and management process through the the
use of systems (merchandising & inventory) to enhance service to customers and increase efficiency. 10) Profit sharing for employees to motivate them and to
engage them more in the success of the company. 11) Need to develop an Installment credit process to allow the company to tap into the consumerism that drove the growth of the post war economy. 12) Eatons need to develop a corporate citizen philosophy to help in keep in touch with smaller communities. 13) Eatons should
look at creating a central buying function rather than allowing store managers buying autonomy to provide consistent assortment and in-stock experience within it
stores. 14)Develop automated systems for its catalogue business to increase availability of goods and increase efficiency in a highly price competitive channel
Eatons needed to continue to strengthen its nationalism campaign that it is truly all Canadian. -- Converting to a public company is not a necessary strategy to help it
be competitive. --
Case 8(look at end of lecture 9)
The end of Monopoly; a new world at Inco
- In 2006, Inco was bought by CVRD, a Brazilian miner of iron core
- 2005 and 2006 saw aggressive bids and propositions for mergers and acquisitions in the market. It was a very intense period.
- These changes were also indicative of a major shift in the worldwide mining industry whereby companies that used to specialize in one or two metals
took on a greater range of minerals. This will also result in a more diversified revenue st