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Canada;s history.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 1010
Eytan Lasry

Canadas HistoryListen to this chapterAboriginal PeoplesWhen Europeans explored Canada they found all regions occupied by native peoples they called Indians because the first explorers thought they had reached the East Indies The native people lived off the land some by hunting and gathering others by raising crops The HuronWendat of the Great Lakes region like the Iroquois were farmers and hunters The Cree and Dene of the Northwest were huntergatherers The Sioux were nomadic following the bison buffalo herd The Inuit lived off Arctic wildlife West Coast natives preserved fish by drying and smoking Warfare was common among Aboriginal groups as they competed for land resources and prestigeThe arrival of European traders missionaries soldiers and colonists changed the native way of life forever Large numbers of Aboriginals died of European diseases to which they lacked immunity However Aboriginals and Europeans formed strong economic religious and military bonds in the first 200 years of coexistence which laid the foundations of CanadaThe First EuropeansThe Vikings from Iceland who colonized Greenland 1000 years ago also reached Labrador and the island of Newfoundland The remains of their settlement lAnse aux Meadows are a World Heritage siteEuropean exploration began in earnest in 1497 with the expedition of John Cabot who was the first to draw a map of Canadas East CoastIndian encampmentfur trade era See larger versionJohn Cabot an Italian immigrant to England was the first to map Canadas Atlantic shoresetting foot on Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island in 1497 and claiming the New Founde Land for England English settlement did not begin until 1610 See larger version Exploring a River Naming CanadaBetween 1534 and 1542 Jacques Cartier made three voyages across the Atlantic claiming the land for King Francis I of France Cartier heard two captured guides speak the Iroquoian word kanata meaning village By the 1550s the name of Canada began appearing on mapsRoyal New FranceIn 1604 the first European settlement north of Florida was established by French explorers Pierre de Monts and Samuel de Champlain first on St Croix Island in presentday Maine then at PortRoyal in Acadia presentday Nova Scotia In 1608 Champlain built a fortress at what is now Qubec City The colonists struggled against a harsh climate Champlain allied the colony with the Algonquin Montagnais and Huron historic enemies of the Iroquois a confederation of five later six First Nations who battled with the French settlements for a century The French and the Iroquois made peace in 1701 The French and Aboriginal people collaborated in the vast furtrade economy driven by the demand for beaver pelts in Europe Outstanding leaders like Jean Talon Bishop Laval and Count Frontenac built a French Empire in North America that reached from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of MexicoJacques Cartier was the first European to explorethe St Lawrence River
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