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Chapter 9 A complete chapter 9 note taken from both the lecture and book.

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon

Chapter 9 – Personality, Cultural Values and Ability Capture what people are like: Personality: The structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior; personality reflects what people are like and creates their social reputation. Personality is also a collection of multiple specific traits. Traits: Recurring trends in people’s responses to their environment. (Adjectives such as responsible, critical, organized, or achievement-oriented are all examples of traits). Cultural Values: Shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture that influence the expression of traits. Capture what people can do: Ability: Relatively stables capabilities of people for performing a particular range of related activities. The Big Five Taxonomy Big Five: The five major dimensions of personality including CANOE. Conscientiousness: Dimension of personality reflecting traits like being dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking and persevering (determined).  Has the biggest influence on job performance  Accomplishment Striving: A strong desire to accomplish task-related goals as a means of expressing one’s personality.  Moderate positive correlation with job performance and organizational commitment Agreeableness: Dimension of personality reflecting traits like being kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, courteous, and warm.  Communion Striving: A strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing one’s personality. Neuroticism: Dimension of personality reflecting traits like being nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, jealous, and unstable.  Negative Affectivity: A dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods, such as hostility, nervousness, and annoyance.  Differential Exposure to Stressors: Being more likely to appraise day-to-day situations as stressful, thereby feeling that stressors are encountered more frequently.  Differential Reactivity to Stressors: Being less likely to believe that one can cope with the stressors experienced on a daily basis. Openness to Experience: Dimensions of personality reflecting traits like being curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, and sophisticated.  Beneficial in some jobs but not others.  Jobs that need innovative thing benefit from employees that carry an openness to experience dimension of traits with them. Extraversion: Dimension of personality reflecting traits like being talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant.  Easiest to judge In zero acquaintance situations o Zero Acquaintance Situations: Situations in which two people have just met.  Status Striving: A strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure as a means of expressing one’s personality.  Tend to be high in positive affectivity. o Positive Affectivity: A dispositional tendency to experience pleasant, engaging moods such as enthusiasm, excitement, and elation. Cultural Values Ethnocentrism: One who views his or her cultural values as “right” and values of other cultures as “wrong.” Geert Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Values Individualism-Collectivism: The degree to which a culture has a loosely knit social framework (individualism) or a tight social framework (collectivism) Power Distance: The degree to which a culture prefers equal power distribution (low power distance) or an unequal power distribution (high power distance) Uncertainty Avoidance: The degree to which a culture tolerates ambiguous situations (low uncertainty avoidance) or feels threatened by them (high uncertainty avoidance) Masculinity-Femininity: The degree to which a culture values stereotypically male traits (masculinity) or stereotypically female traits (femininity) Short-term vs. Long-term Orientation: The degree to which a culture stresses values that are past-and present-oriented (short-term orientation) or future-oriented (long-term orientation) Ability Can be grouped into 3 general categories: Cognitive Ability: Capabilities related to the use of knowledge to make decisions and solve problems. Positive strong correlations with job performance due to smart employees fulfill the requirements of their job descriptions more effectively than do less smart employees. Weak correlation with organizational commitment.  Verbal Ability o Oral and written comprehension – ability to understand spoken and written words o Oral and written expression – ability to communicate ideas by speaking and writing.  Police, Fire and Ambulance Dispatchers  Quantitative Ability o Number Facility – Capability to do simple math operations such as adding/subtracting. o Mathematical Reasoning – Ability to choose and apply formulas to solve problems that involve numbers.  Treasurers, Financial Managers and Statisticians  Reasoning Ability o Problem Sensitivity – Ability to sense that there is or will be a problem o Deductive Reasoning - Ability to solve problems applying general rules o Inductive Reasoning – Ability to consider several pieces of information and then reach a more general conclusion regarding how those pieces are related. o Originality – Ability to develop clever and novel ways to solve problems.  Anesthesiologists, surgeons, business executives and fire inspectors  Spatial (3D) Ability o Spatial Orientation – A good understanding of where one is relative to other things in the environment o Visualization – Ability to imagine how separate things will look if they were put together in a particular way  Pilots, Drivers, Boat Captains  Perceptual Ability o Speed and Flexibility of Closure – Ability to pick out a pattern of informatio
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