Chapter 6 – Motivation
Motivation: A set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity, and persistence of an
employee’s work effort.
Internal force: Self-Confidence
External force: Goals provided for employee to follow
Motivation measures, what employees do at a given moment and the direction in which their effort is
Direction of Effort: What are you going to do right now?
Intensity of Effort: How hard are you going to work on it?
Persistence of Effort: How long are you going to work on it?
Expectancy Theory: The rational (cognitive) process that employees go through to make choices
among different voluntary responses.
Employees make choices based on 3 specific biased beliefs:
-Expectancy – Belief that exerting high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some
Self-efficacy: belief that individual has required skills to complete task successfully
Past accomplishments, various experiences (others who have performed some
work task), verbal persuasion (get persuaded by others to get work done) and
emotional cues (fear and anxiety creates doubt while pride and enthusiasm
-Instrumentality – Belief that successful performance will result in the attainment of some outcomes.
-Valence – Anticipated value of the outcomes associated with successful performance Positively Valence includes promotions, salary increases and bonuses. Negatively Valence
includes demotions, terminations and disciplinary actions.
Needs: Groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or physiological
Need Label Alternative Label Description
Existence Physiological, Safety The need for the food, shelter,
safety and protection required
for human existence
Relatedness Love, Belongingness The need to create and maintain
lasting, positive, interpersonal
Control Autonomy, Responsibility The need to be able to predict
Esteem Self-regard, Growth The need to hold a high
evaluation of oneself and to feel
effective and respected by
Meaning Self-actualization The need to perform tasks that
one cares about and that appeal
to ideals and sense of purpose
Extrinsic Motivation: Desire to put forth work effort due to some (likelihood) contingency that depends
on task performance.
Ex. Things that winning a NASCAR race brings for the driver.
Intrinsic Motivation: Desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its
Ex. The driver chooses to drive not for the winning, but the internal factors that it brings him.
Like providing him with enjoyment and personal expression.
Meaning of Money: The idea that money can have symbolic value (E.g., achievement, respect, freedom)
in addition to economic value.
Motivational Force (total motivation) – Motivational force = 0 if any one of the three beliefs is zero.
Extrinsic Outcomes Intrinsic Outcomes
Benefits and Perks Knowledge Gain
Spot Awards Skill Development
Praise (compliments) Personal Expression Job Security Lack of Boredom
Support Lack of Anxiety
Free Time Lack of Frustration
Lack of Disciplinary Actions
Lack of Demotions
Lack of Terminations
Goal Setting Theory: A theory that views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and
persistence of effort.
Specific and Difficult Goals: Goals that stretch an employee to perform at his or her maximum level
while still staying with the boundaries of his or her ability.
Ex. Specific goals are better than do your best goals.
Self-Set goals: Internal goals that people use to monitor their own task progress
Task Strategies: Learning plans and problem-solving approaches used to achieve successful