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Chapter 6 A complete chapter 6 note taken from both the lecture and book.

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon

Chapter 6 – Motivation Motivation: A set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity, and persistence of an employee’s work effort. Internal force: Self-Confidence External force: Goals provided for employee to follow Motivation measures, what employees do at a given moment and the direction in which their effort is channeled. Direction of Effort: What are you going to do right now? Intensity of Effort: How hard are you going to work on it? Persistence of Effort: How long are you going to work on it? Theories Expectancy Theory: The rational (cognitive) process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses. Employees make choices based on 3 specific biased beliefs: -Expectancy – Belief that exerting high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task Factors: Self-efficacy: belief that individual has required skills to complete task successfully Past accomplishments, various experiences (others who have performed some work task), verbal persuasion (get persuaded by others to get work done) and emotional cues (fear and anxiety creates doubt while pride and enthusiasm boosts confidence) -Instrumentality – Belief that successful performance will result in the attainment of some outcomes. -Valence – Anticipated value of the outcomes associated with successful performance Positively Valence includes promotions, salary increases and bonuses. Negatively Valence includes demotions, terminations and disciplinary actions. Needs: Groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences. Need Label Alternative Label Description Existence Physiological, Safety The need for the food, shelter, safety and protection required for human existence Relatedness Love, Belongingness The need to create and maintain lasting, positive, interpersonal relationships Control Autonomy, Responsibility The need to be able to predict and control Esteem Self-regard, Growth The need to hold a high evaluation of oneself and to feel effective and respected by others Meaning Self-actualization The need to perform tasks that one cares about and that appeal to ideals and sense of purpose Extrinsic Motivation: Desire to put forth work effort due to some (likelihood) contingency that depends on task performance. Ex. Things that winning a NASCAR race brings for the driver. Intrinsic Motivation: Desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its own reward. Ex. The driver chooses to drive not for the winning, but the internal factors that it brings him. Like providing him with enjoyment and personal expression. Meaning of Money: The idea that money can have symbolic value (E.g., achievement, respect, freedom) in addition to economic value. Motivational Force (total motivation) – Motivational force = 0 if any one of the three beliefs is zero. Extrinsic Outcomes Intrinsic Outcomes Pay Enjoyment Bonuses Interestingness Promotions Accomplishment Benefits and Perks Knowledge Gain Spot Awards Skill Development Praise (compliments) Personal Expression Job Security Lack of Boredom Support Lack of Anxiety Free Time Lack of Frustration Lack of Disciplinary Actions Lack of Demotions Lack of Terminations Goal Setting Theory: A theory that views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort. Specific and Difficult Goals: Goals that stretch an employee to perform at his or her maximum level while still staying with the boundaries of his or her ability. Ex. Specific goals are better than do your best goals. Self-Set goals: Internal goals that people use to monitor their own task progress Task Strategies: Learning plans and problem-solving approaches used to achieve successful perfo
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