Chapter 3 – Organizational Commitment
Organizational Commitment: An employee’s desire to remain a member of an organization.
Withdrawal Behavior: Employee actions that are intended to avoid work situations.
One might respond in one of the four general ways to negative work events:
o Exit: A response to a negative work event by which one becomes often absent from
work or voluntarily leaves the organization.
You might want to remove yourself first from the situation. Either by being
absent from work more frequently or by voluntarily leaving the organization.
o Voice: When an employee speaks up to offer constructive suggestions for change, often
in reaction to a negative work event.
You might attempt to change the circumstances by meeting with the new team
member to attempt to work out the situation.
o Loyalty: A passive response to a negative work event in which one publicly supports the
situation but privately hoes for improvement.
You might just “grin and bear it” maintaining your effort level despite your
o Neglect: A passive, destructive response to a negative work event in which one’s
interest and effort in work decline.
You might just go through the motions, allowing your performance to
deteriorate slowly as you mentally “check out.”
Neglect may be more dangerous to an organization than exit, due to the
neglect aspect may not be noticed right away.
o Walkerton Case.
Organizations commitment should decrease the likelihood that an individual will respond to a
negative work event with exit or neglect (2 destructive responses).
Affective and Normative commitment increase the likelihood of voice and loyalty in a negative
work event, and decrease exit and neglect.
Comes in 2 forms:
o Psychological Withdrawal: (Neglect) Mentally escaping the work environment
Least to Most Serious:
Daydreaming: A form of psychological withdrawal in which one’s work
is interrupted by random thoughts or concerns.
Socializing: A form of psychological withdrawal in which one verbally
chats with co-workers about non-work topics.
Looking Busy: A form of psychological withdrawal in which one
attempts to appear consumed with work when not performing actual
work tasks. Moonlighting: A form of psychological withdrawal in which employees
use work time and resources to do non-work-related activities.
Cyberloafing: A form of psychological withdrawal in which employees
surf the internet, e-mail, and instant message to avoid doing work-
o Physical Withdrawal: (Exit) A physical escape from the work environment
Least to most serious:
Tardiness: A form of physical withdrawal in which employees arrive late
to work or leave work early.
Long Breaks: A form of physical withdrawal in which employees take
longer-than-normal lunches or breaks to spend less time at work.
Missing Meetings: A form of physical withdrawal in which employees
neglect important work functions while away from the office.
Absenteeism: A form of physical withdrawal in which employees do not
show up for an entire day of work.
Quitting: A form of physical withdrawal in which employees volunta