Chapter 7 – Trust, Justice, & Ethics
Trust: The willingness to be vulnerable to another based on positive expectations about another’s
actions and intentions.
Put ourselves out there, when we trust
Trust reflects the willingness for an individual to take a risk with an authority
Trust comes from people and organizations
o Organizational trust is based on reputation of company
Factors of Trust:
Disposition-based Trust: Trust that is rooted in one’s own personality, as opposed to a careful
assessment of the trustee’s trustworthiness.
o Trust Propensity: A general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of
individuals can be relied upon.
“faith in human nature”
Less to do with authority and more to do with the trustor.
High in trust propensity may allow someone to trust one that is not worthy of it.
Low in trust propensity may allow someone to distrust one that deserves it.
Product of both nature (genetics) and nurture (how we are raised).
Cognition-based Trust: Trust that is rooted in a rational assessment of the authority’s
o Trustworthiness: Characteristics or attributes of a person that inspire trust, including
competence, character, and benevolence.
Competence: The skills, abilities, and areas of expertise that enable an authority
to be successful in some specific area.
Doctor trust to perform surgery, mechanic trust to fix car, etc.
Character: The perception that an authority adheres to a set of values and
principles that the trustor finds acceptable.
Have integrity – honest motives and intentions.
Words and deeds – keep their promises Benevolence: The belief that an authority wants to do good for an employee,
apart from any selfish or profit-centered motives.
Care for employees, concerned about their well-being, and feel a sense
of loyalty to them.
The best mentors would never do anything to hurt their protégés
Affect-based Trust: Trust that depends on feelings toward the authority that go beyond any
rational assessment of trustworthiness.
o Emotional than rational.
o We really like the person, thus we trust them
o Acts as a supplement to the others.
o Feeling toward trustee
New relationships = Disposition-Based Trust
Most Relationships = Cognition-Based Trust
Few Relationships = Affect-Based Trust
How do we gauge those trustworthiness forms?
Justice: The perceived fairness of an authority’s decision making
High level of justice decision outcomes to be fair and decisions making conducted in fair
Can be used to explain why some employees judge some authorities more trustworthy than
Four dimensions that employees can judge fairness of an authority:
o Distributive Justice: The perceived fairness of decision-making outcomes.
If the allocation of pay, promotions, evaluations, work assignments are using
In most businesses the proper norm is equity, more outcomes allocated to
those who contribute more inputs.
In a team, it is fair that the team received equality rather than the individuals on
Equity vs. Equality vs. Need
Are rewards allocated according to the proper norm?
o Procedural Justice: The perceived fairness of decision-making processes.
Process that led to the outcome.
When authorities adhere to rules of fair process.
Voice is one of the rules, which enables the employee with an opportunity to
express their opinions and views during the course of decision making.
Provides a sense of ownership for employees for decisions that occur at
work. Correctability is a related rule to voice.
Provides employees to request an appeal when a procedure seems to
have worked ineffectively.
Also fostered when authorities adhere to four rules that serve to create equal
Consistency, Bias Suppression, Representativeness, and Accuracy.
o Enables neutral and objective as opposed to biased and
o Accurate measures of job performance for promotional use.
When distributive justice is high, procedural justice has little impact on
When outcomes are good, people do not look at processes.
When outcomes are bad, procedural justice b