ADMS2400 MAY.21 WEEK 3_Lecture5 Motivation 1
TOPIC - Motivation
What is motivation?
Goal Setting theory
Compensation Practices in Organizations
What is Motivation?
Motivation is defined as a set of energetic forces that originates both within
and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its
direction, intensity, and persistence.
o Motivation is a critical consideration because job performance is largely
a function of two factors: motivation and ability
Expectancy is a subjective probability, ranging from 0 to 1 that a specific
amount of effort will result in a specific level of performance (abbreviated E
Instrumentality is a set of subjective probabilities, each ranging from 0 to 1
that successful performance will bring a set of outcomes (abbreviated P →
Valence reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with
performance (abbreviated V).
o Can be positive, negative, or zero
Total “motivational force” to perform a given action can be described using
the following formula:
Motivational Force = E P x Σ[(P O) x V]
Motivational force equals zero if any one of the three beliefs is zero.
Goal Setting Theory
Goal setting theory views (self-set) goals as the primary drivers of
motivation. ADMS2400 MAY.21 WEEK 3_Lecture5 Motivation 2
o Research shows that assigning employees specific and difficult goals
leads to higher self-set goals, which, in turn will result in higher levels
Why do specific and difficult goals have such positive effects?
o Goals determine the intensity of effort directed at goal-relevant
activities, and they affect the persis