Chapter 7: Wireless, Mobile Computing, and Mobile Commerce
Wireless: Describes telecommunications in which electromagnetic wave, rather that wire/cable is used to
carry signal between communication devices.
Mobile: Something that changes its location overtime.
The ability to communicate anytime and anywhere provides organizations with a strategic advantage by
increasing productivity and sped and improving customer service.
Mobile Computing: real time, wireless connection between a mobile device and other computing environment
such as intranet or Internet.
Mobile Commerce: Transactions that re conducted in a wireless environment, especially via Internet.
Pervasive Computing (ubiquitous computing): Means the virtually every object has processing power with
wireless or wired connections to a global network.
Wireless Devices are becoming productive and convenient because:
1. They make productive use of time that was formerly wasted (e.g. sending work e-mail while commuting)
2. They provide for more flexible work location because people can carry devices with them
3. Wireless technology enables them to allocate between work, personal and professional obligation.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP): Is the standard that enables wireless devices to access web-based
information and services. Older devices contained Microbrewers.
Major types of Wireless Media:
Microwave Transmission: Systems are widely used for high-volume, long-distance, lone-of-sight
communication. It has high bandwidth, inexpensive, but must have unobstructed line of sight, and susceptible
to environmental interference.
Satellite Transmission: systems that make use of communication satellites. They have high bandwidth and
large coverage. But are expensive, must have unobstructed line of sight, and must use encryption of security.
The higher a satellite orbits, the large its footprint (coverage area) There’re 3 Types:
1) Geostationary (GEO): Use in TV signal. They have Propagation Delay disadvantage
2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO): Use in GPS
3) Low Earth Orbit (LEO): Use in Telephone
GPS: Is a wireless system that uses satellites to enable users to determine their position anywhere on earth.
Radio Transmission: Uses radio-wave frequencies to send data directly between transmitters and receivers.
They are inexpensive and singles pass through walls, but need encryption for privacy and create electrical
interference problems. E.g. LAN
Infrared Transmission: it uses infrared light that is not visible to human eyes. Can only be used for short
distances. E.g. Remote controls.
Wireless Networks Effective Distance:
Short-Range: Connect one device to another wirelessly. It has a range of 30 meters.
Bluetooth: It’s used to create small Personal Area Network (a computer network used for communication
among computer devices close to one person). It has low power consumption & uses omnidirectional waves
Ultra-Wideband (UWB): Is a high-bandwidth wireless technology with transmission speeds in excess of 100
Mbps. Used in streaming multimedia from PC to TV. It’s also used in real-time location indicators.
Near-field Communications (NFC): It has the shortest-range, used in mobile devices and credit cards,
where you can swipe your devices or card within a few centimeters of point-of-sale terminal to pay for items
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi): is a medium ranger WLAN, which is basically a wire LAN but without the cables. It
provides fast internet access from public hotspots located at airports, hotels, offices, homes. Most WLANs
are the 802.11g standard, they provide low cost simple Internet access. Three factors preventing WIFI market
from expanding: Roaming, Security, and Cost.
Mesh Networks: They use multiple Wi-Fi access point to create a WAN that can be very large and cover
wide area, example of a city. Wide-Area: Connect users to Internet over geographically dispersed territory, operating over licensed spectr
Cellular Radio (cell phones): use radio wave to provide two-way communication. The cell phone
communicates with radio antennas places within geographic areas, called cells. Cell Technology 1G,2G,....
Wireless Broadband (WiMax): Provide wireless access to 50 KM. It’s a secure system offering voice & vide
Mobile Computing: Refers to real-time wireless connection between a mobile device and other computing
environment, such as Internet or an intranet. It has two major characteristics: 1. Mobility (meaning users
carry devices with them and can initiate a real-time contract with other systems. 2. Broad Reach (user can
carry an open mobile device; they can be reached instantly, even across great distances.
These characteristics create Five values:
1. Ubiquity: Mobile device ability to provide information and c