In order for managers to empower effectively, they must enhance the following qualities in their
1. Self-efficacy: “I can do it attitude”
2. Self-determination: Internal locus of control, I have choices
3. Personal consequence: what I do has an impact
4. Meaning: what I do adds value
5. Trust: I will be treated fairly and equitably
There are 9 specific prescriptions to generating empowerment (see practical suggestions on p. 460):
1. Articulating a clear vision and goals
2. Facilitating personal mastery experiences
3. Modeling or demonstrating the desired behavior
4. Providing Support
5. Replacing negative emotions with positive ones
6. Providing information
7. Providing resources
8. Providing connection to outcomes
9. Creating confidence
Ten Delegation Principles
1. Begin with the end in mind: the desired results of the delegated task must be clear.
2. Delegate completely. Indicate the expected level of initiative.
3. Allow participation in the delegation of assignments
4. Establish parity between authority and responsibility
5. Delegate to the lowest organizational level at which a job can be done.
6. Provide adequate support for delegated tasks
7. Focus accountability on results. Do not micromanage.
8. Delegate consistently
9. Avoid upward delegation
10. Clarify consequences
Violated empowerment guidelines
a) by Ken Hoffman: 1 – 3 – 4 – 6 – 9
Mr Hoffman failed to provide Ruth with clear performance guidelines of where her branch should be
taken. He wrongly assumed she knew and gave her no directions, set no boundaries. Neither he
demonstrated his desired behaviors. Even when she made her first “mistake” by hiring an Inventories
assistant, he failed to provide her with information, guidelines, a budget, a procedures manual. By
micro-managing Ruth, Hoffman is not creating much confidence on her.
Hoffman should have taken this first opportunity to meet with Ruth and establish clear, general
guidelines; a list of can's and cannot's, must's and must not's. Ruth had given clear indications of
initiative and desire to make her store one of the best, if not the best.
Hoffman had been “twice warned” and still did not act in consequence.
If store rules indicate that no charge could be made over $1000 for any reason, Hoffman should instead
encourage Ruth to double check with him on these “particular” occasions. By doing so, Hoffman
would be demonstrating his desired behavior to Ruth. Instead he said: “”you need to learn to use your
head.” Three strikes, Hoffman is out. Still he did not ask for a clarifi