Chapter 3 (Evidence)
Claim: central idea that the author of a piece of writing is trying to persuade you to accept.
Evidence: any statement that gives truth to the claim.
Argument: combination of claim and evidence
Cue words: because, as a result, in the first place, for example.
Indicate that the author is about to present a piece of evidence.
• Most important characteristic of good evidence
• Must be an independent and infallible source of information
• by performing own research
• Whether the author makes other obvious errors that undermine the reliability
o Spelling or grammar mistakes
o Inaccurate quotations
Good evidence is appropriately precise
Overuse of ambiguous words (often, high probability, usually) are indicative of low precision.
Using numbers and direct quotations of people actually said increases precision.
Precision is used as an alternative to accuracy
Over precision and under precision may detract from credibility of evidence. Sufficiency
To be persuasive, an author must provide sufficient evidence to support a claim
Fallacy: erroneous but frequently persuasive way of being led from a reason or circumstance
to a conclusion (When the e