1. Top Managers: managers at or near the top level of the organization who are who are
responsible for making organizational-wide decisions and establish the plans and goals that
affect the entire organization. (Referred to as: President, executive vice president, managing
director, chief operating officer, chief executive officer or chair of the board)
2. Middle Managers: Managers between the first line and the top level of the
organization. These managers manage the work of the first line managers. (Referred to as:
regional manager, project leader, plant manager or division manager)
3. First line Manager: Managers at the lowest level of the organization who manage the
work of non managerial employees who are directly or indirectly involved with the production
or creation of the organizations products. (Referred to as, supervisors, shift mangers, district
mangers, department managers or office managers.)
Efficiency and effectiveness
Efficiency: Getting the most output for the least amount of inputs.
Effectiveness: Completing activities so that organizational goals are achieved.
Note: Management expert Peter Druker explains efficiency and effectiveness as “doing things
right”, and “doing the right thing” respectively.
Management Functions: Management perform certain activities or duties as they
efficiently and effectively coordinate the work of others. These activities and duties consist of
planning leading organizing and controlling and are implemented in order to accomplish the
1. Planning: (Set goals and formulate plans) A management function that involves
defining goals establishing a strategy for achieving those goals, and developing plans to
integrate and coordinate activities. This is typically done by the CEO or senior management
teams of the organization.
2. Organizing: (determine structural arrangements) Is a management function that
involves determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be
grouped, who reports to whom (establishes authority relationships) and where decisions are to
3. Leading: (Training and motivation) A management function that involves motivating
subordinates, directing the work of individuals or teams, selecting the most effective
communication channels, and resolving employee behaviour issues.
4. Controlling: (evaluation of performance objectives) A management function that
involves monitoring actual performance, comparing actual performance to standard, and
taking corrective action when necessary.
Management roles: specific categories of management behavior that include
interpersonal, informal and decisional.
1. Interpersonal: Is a management role that involves working with people or performing
duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. Interpersonal duties include being a figure
head, leader and liaison. 2. Informal: management roles that involve receiving, collecting and disseminating