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CHAPTER FIFTEEN Management 3930.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 3930
Randy Hoffman

CHAPTER FIFTEEN. What is Motivation? Motivation: the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal, where initiation of effort is concerned with the choices that people make about how much effort they will put forth in their jobs, direction of effort is concerned with the choices people making in deciding where to put forth effort in their jobs, and persistence of effort is concerned with the choices that people make about how long they will put forth effort in their jobs before reducing or eliminating those efforts - basic motivation is built from effort and performance, need satisfaction, and extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, and motivation with the basics Basic Motivation Components 1. Effort and Performance…job performance Job performance = Motivation X Ability X Situational Constraints 2. Need Satisfaction; Needs: the physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being (Maslow’s hierarchy of needs) 3. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards; Extrinsic rewards: tangible and visible to others and are given to employees contingent on the performance of specific tasks or behaviours Intrinsic rewards: natural rewards associated with performing a task or activity 4. The Basic Model of Motivation - managers can motivate employees by asking tem what their needs are, satisfying lower-order needs first, expecting people’s needs to change, and satisfying higher-order needs through intrinsic rewards Equity Theory Equity theory: people will be motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly - regardless of the actual level of rewards people receive, they must also perceive that, relative to others, they are being treated fairly - based on inputs (contributions employees make to the organization) and outputs (the rewards employees receive for their contributions to the organization) - based on the perception of how one is being treated in relation to others, who are known as referents: others with whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been treated fairly - the outcome/input (O/I) ratio is an employee’s perception of the comparison between the rewards received from an organization and the employee’s contributions to that organization - when a referents O/I ratio is better than your O/I ratio, this is known as underreward - when a referents O/I ration is worse than yours, it is known as overreward - these are both forms of inequality in the workplace outcomes (self) = outcomes (referent) inputs (self) = inputs (referent) - employees may change their inputs or go to a labour board when responding to perceived inequality - fairness is key in bore reward allocation and distribution Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory: people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they are offered attractive rewards Motivation = Valence X Instrumentality X Expectancy - valence: the attractiveness
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