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ADMS 4245 (12)

CHAPTER 12.doc

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 4245
Peter Modir

CH 12 – Prototyping Understanding Prototypes • Industrial Designers produce prototypes as their concepts • Engineers prototype a design • Software developers write prototype programs Prototype: it is an approximation of the product along one or more dimensions of interest. Types of Prototypes: it can be classified in 2 dimensions: 1) Physical and analytical 2)comprehensive and focused • 1) Physical: They are tangible artifacts crated to approximate the product o Analytical: they represent the product in a nontangible, usually mathematical or visual, manner. Interesting aspects of the product are analyzed, rather than built. • 2) Comprehensive: they implement most, if not all, all the attributes of a product. A comprehensive prototype corresponds closely to the everyday use of the word prototype, in that it is a full-scale, fully operational version of the product o Focused: they implement one, or a few, of the attributes of the product. What are prototypes used for? 4 purpose! • Learning: will it work?, how well does it meet the customer needs? • Communication: prototypes enrich communication with top management. Vendors, partners, extended team members, customers and investors. • Integration: Prototypes are used to ensure that components and subsytems of the product work together as expected. Comprehensive physical prototypes are most effective as integration tools in product development projects because they require the assembly and physical internconnection of all the parts and subassemblies that make up a product. • Milestones: Particularly in the later stages of product development, prototypes are used to demonstrate that the product has achieved a desired level of functionality. Principles of Prototyping • Analytical prototypes are generally more flexible than physical prototypes o Because an analytical prototype is a mathematical approximation of the product, it will generally contain parameters that can be varied in order to represent a range of design alternatives. In most cases, changing a paramenter in analytical prototype is easier than changing an attribute of a physical prototype. • Physical Prototypes are required to detect unanticipated phenomena o A physical prototype often exhibits unanticipated phenomena completely unrelated to the original objective of the prototype. • A prototype may reduce the
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