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ADMS 2400 Lecture Notes - Goal Setting, Belongingness, Learned Helplessness

Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 2400
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon

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Chapter 6 Motivation
Motivation: A set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity, and persistence of an
employee’s work effort.
Internal force: Self-Confidence
External force: Goals provided for employee to follow
Motivation measures, what employees do at a given moment and the direction in which their effort is
Direction of Effort: What are you going to do right now?
Intensity of Effort: How hard are you going to work on it?
Persistence of Effort: How long are you going to work on it?
Expectancy Theory: The rational (cognitive) process that employees go through to make choices
among different voluntary responses.
Employees make choices based on 3 specific biased beliefs:
-Expectancy Belief that exerting high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some
Self-efficacy: belief that individual has required skills to complete task successfully
Past accomplishments, various experiences (others who have performed some
work task), verbal persuasion (get persuaded by others to get work done) and
emotional cues (fear and anxiety creates doubt while pride and enthusiasm
boosts confidence)
-Instrumentality Belief that successful performance will result in the attainment of some outcomes.
-Valence Anticipated value of the outcomes associated with successful performance

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Positively Valence includes promotions, salary increases and bonuses. Negatively Valence
includes demotions, terminations and disciplinary actions.
Needs: Groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or physiological
Need Label
Alternative Label
Physiological, Safety
The need for the food, shelter,
safety and protection required
for human existence
Love, Belongingness
The need to create and maintain
lasting, positive, interpersonal
Autonomy, Responsibility
The need to be able to predict
and control
Self-regard, Growth
The need to hold a high
evaluation of oneself and to feel
effective and respected by
The need to perform tasks that
one cares about and that appeal
to ideals and sense of purpose
Extrinsic Motivation: Desire to put forth work effort due to some (likelihood) contingency that depends
on task performance.
Ex. Things that winning a NASCAR race brings for the driver.
Intrinsic Motivation: Desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its
own reward.
Ex. The driver chooses to drive not for the winning, but the internal factors that it brings him.
Like providing him with enjoyment and personal expression.
Meaning of Money: The idea that money can have symbolic value (E.g., achievement, respect, freedom)
in addition to economic value.
Motivational Force (total motivation) Motivational force = 0 if any one of the three beliefs is zero.
Extrinsic Outcomes
Intrinsic Outcomes
Benefits and Perks
Knowledge Gain
Spot Awards
Skill Development
Praise (compliments)
Personal Expression
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