ADMS 2400 Lecture Notes - Punctuated Equilibrium, Web Conferencing, Flight Attendant

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
York University
Department
Administrative Studies
Course
ADMS 2400
Chapter 10 Team Characteristics
Team: Two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common
goals related to some task-oriented purpose.
Group: Collection of 2 or more people
Team vs. Group
Interactions within teams revolve around a deeper dependence on one another than the
interactions within groups.
Members of a team depend on one another for critical information, materials, and actions that
are needed to accomplish their purpose.
Surgeon, Anesthesiologist, and a Nurse work together to accomplish a successful surgery on a patient.
Team Types
Work Teams: A relatively permanent team in which members work together to produce goods and/or
provide services.
Vary in the degree in which members have autonomy in defining theirs roles and decision
making.
o Example: MBA Program at University of Alberta
Management Teams: A relatively permanent team that participates in managerial-level tasks that affect
the entire organization.
Participate in managerial-level tasks that affect the entire organization
o Example: Typically departments or functional areasto help the organization achieve its
long-term goals.
Parallel Teams: A team composed of members from various jobs within the organization that meets to
provide recommendations about important issues.
Part-time commitment from members required
May be permanent or temporary, depending on their aim
o Examples: Committees often form to deal with unique issues or issues that arise only
periodically.
Project Teams: A team formed to take on one-time tasks, most of which tend to be complex and require
input from members from different functional areas.
Exist as long as it takes to finish a project
o Some projects are complex and may take years to complete
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Work full-time
o Example: Pixar has characteristics of project teams.
Action Teams: A team of limited duration that performs complex tasks in contexts that tends to be
highly visible and challenging.
Example: Sport teams remain for at least one season, Musical groups like the Rolling Stones
may stick together for decades.
Variations within Team Types
Virtual Team: A team in which the members are geographically dispersed and interdependent activity
occurs through e-mail, Web conferencing, and instant messaging.
Predictable Sequence
Forming: The first stage of team development, during which members try to get a feel for what is
expected of them, what types of behaviors are out of bounds, and who’s in charge.
Storming: The second stage of team development, during which conflict occurs due to members’
ongoing commitment to ideas they bring with them to the team.
Norming: The third stage of team development, during which members realize that they need to work
together to accomplish team goals and consequently begin to cooperate.
Performing: The final stage of team development, during which members are comfortable working with
their roles, and the teams makes progress toward goals.
Aircraft flight crew does not have to go through the forming, storming, norming, and
performing stages to figure out that the pilot flies the plane and the flight attendant serves
the beverages.
o The predictable sequence of team development does not apply to all types of
teams.
One situation in which this developmental sequence is less applicable is
when teams are formed with clear expectations regarding what is expected
from the team and its members.
Second situation in which it is less applicable may be in certain types of
project teams that follow a pattern of development called punctuated
equilibrium.
Punctuated Equilibrium: A sequence of team development during
which not much gets done until the halfway point of a project, after
which teams make necessary changes to complete the project on
time.
o Forming and Pattern Creation: Members make assumptions
and establish a pattern of behavior that lasts the first half of
its life.
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o Inertia (Inactivity): That pattern of behavior continues to
dominate the team’s behavior as it settles into a sort of
inertia.
o At mid-point of the project something remarkable happens.
o Process Revision: Members realize that they have to
change their task paradigm fundamentally to complete it on
time.
People that change, do well, people that do not
change, sink in the ocean.
Team Interdependence
Task Interdependence: The degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team
members for information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team.
Lowest to Highest Required Coordination
Pooled Interdependence: A form of task interdependence in which group members complete their work
assignments independently, and then their work is simply added together to represent the group’s
output.
Example: Tug of War
Sequential Interdependence: A form of task interdependence in which group members perform
different tasks in a prescribed sequence, and members only depend on the member who comes before
them in the sequence.
Example: Assembly Line
Reciprocal Interdependence: A form of task interdependence in which group members interact with
only a limited subset of other members to complete the team’s work.
Example: Hospital
Comprehensive Interdependence: A form of task interdependence in which team members have a great
deal of discretion in terms of what they do and with whom they interact in the course of the
collaboration involved in accomplishing the team’s work
Highest level of interaction and coordination among members as they try to accomplish work.
o Example: Appolo-13
Goal Interdependence: The degree to which team members have a shared goal and align their
individual goals with that vision.
Example: Row-boat
Mission Statements increase goal interdependence
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Document Summary

Team: two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose. Interactions within teams revolve around a deeper dependence on one another than the interactions within groups. Members of a team depend on one another for critical information, materials, and actions that are needed to accomplish their purpose. Surgeon, anesthesiologist, and a nurse work together to accomplish a successful surgery on a patient. Work teams: a relatively permanent team in which members work together to produce goods and/or provide services. Vary in the degree in which members have autonomy in defining theirs roles and decision making: example: mba program at university of alberta. Management teams: a relatively permanent team that participates in managerial-level tasks that affect the entire organization. Participate in managerial-level tasks that affect the entire organization: example: typically departments or functional areas to help the organization achieve its long-term goals.