Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (640,000)
York (40,000)
ADMS (3,000)
ADMS 2400 (200)
Lecture 5

ADMS 2400 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Ingratiation, Communication Problems, Best Alternative To A Negotiated Agreement

Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 2400
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon

of 4
ADMS2400 JUNE.6 WEEK 5_Lecture 9 Power, Conflict and Negotiation 1
Topic: Power, Conflict and Negotiation
Learning Objectives
Power & Influence
types of power
types of responses to influence
types of conflict
Principles of Effective Negotiation
Power is the ability to influence the behaviour of others and resist unwanted
influence in return
Organizational Power
Legitimate power is derived from a position of authority inside the
organization and is sometimes referred to as “formal authority.”
Reward power exists when someone has control over the resources or rewards
another person wants.
Coercive power exists when a person has control over punishments in an
Personal Power
Personal Power
Expert power is derived from a person‟s expertise, skill, or knowledge
on which others depend.
Referent power exists when others have a desire to identify and be
associated with a person.
Influence is the use of an actual behaviour that causes behavioural or
attitudinal changes in others.
Influence is directional
Most frequently occurs downward (managers influencing employees)
but can also be lateral (peers influencing peers) or upward
(employees influencing managers).
Influence is relative
Absolute power of the “influencer” and “influence” isn‟t as
important as the disparity between them.
Influence Tactics
Rational persuasion is the use of logical arguments and hard facts to show
the target that the request is a worthwhile one.
An inspirational appeal is designed to appeal to the target‟s values and
ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction.
Consultation occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how
to carry out or implement a request.
An individual uses collaboration by attempting to make it easier for the target
to complete the request.
Ingratiation is the use of favors, complements, or friendly behaviour to make
the target feel better about the influencer.
Personal appeals are when the requestor asks for something based on
personal friendship or loyalty.
An exchange tactic is used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to
the target in return for performing a request.
ADMS2400 JUNE.6 WEEK 5_Lecture 9 Power, Conflict and Negotiation 2
An exchange tactic is used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to
the target in return for performing a request.
Apprising occurs when the requestor clearly explains why performing the
request will benefit the target personally.
Pressure is the use of coercive power through threats and demands.
Coalitions occur when the influencer enlists other people to help influence the
Influence tactics tend to be most successful when used in combination.
Influence Tactics and Their Effectiveness
Responses to Influence Attempts
Conflict: A process in which one party perceives that another party has taken
or will take actions that are incompatible with one‟s own interests
Sources of Conflict:
Goal incompatibility
Competition over scarce resources
Differences in beliefs/background
Ambiguity (task/role/demands)
Communication Problems
Interpersonal relationships
Conflict In Teams
Types of conflict in teams:
Task conflict
Relationship conflict
ADMS2400 JUNE.6 WEEK 5_Lecture 9 Power, Conflict and Negotiation 3
Consequences of Conflict
Conflict Management Styles
Negotiation is a process in which two or more interdependent individuals
discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences.
Distributive bargaining involves win–lose negotiating over a “fixed-
pie” of resources.
Integrative bargaining is aimed at accomplishing a winwin scenario.
Negotiation Concepts
TARGET: A statement of what a person or party wants in a particular
RESISTANCE POINT: Point at which you walk away from negotiation
BATNA: Best alternative to a negotiated agreement
Negotiation Concepts