Chapter 6 Notes

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Chapter 6 – Employee Selection
Hiring the best and brightest employees lays a strong foundation for
excellence
Matching People and Jobs
Selection – the process of choosing individuals who have relevant
qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings
The goal of selection is to maximize hits and avoid misses
Those who are selecting should have adequate information upon
which to base their decisions – the jobs to be filled, knowledge of
how many applicants and as much info. About the applicants as
needed
Person-Job Fit: Beginning with Job Analysis
Job specifications help identify the individual competencies
employees needs for success that lead to superior performance
By identifying competencies (KSAOs) through job analysis,
managers use selection methods (interviews, references, tests) to
measure applicant KSAO against the competencies required for the
job – person-job fit
Studies show that those whose KSAOs are well matched to the jobs
they are hired for perform better and are more satisfied
Person-Organization Fit
Some organizations take a priority on finding individuals that meet
broader organizational requirements – like those who match the
values and culture of the organization
Managers will pass up employees if they don’t embrace the values
of the organization, even if they have amazing technical skills
required for the job
The Selection Process
Selection is an ongoing process
People leave so there’s always vacancies to be filled from inside or
outside the organization
Common to have a waiting list of applicants
Steps in the selection process vary on each company and the type
and level of jobs to be filled
Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information
Reliability – the degree to which interviews, tests, and other
selection procedures yield comparable data over time and
alternative measures
Inter-rater reliability – agreement between two or more raters – is
one measure of methods consistency
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Validitythe degree to which a test or selection procedures
measures a person’s attributes
An indicator of the extent to which data from a procedure are
predictive of job performance
Two reasons for validating a procedure
oValidity is directly related to increases in employee productivity
oEmployment equity regulations emphasize the importance of
validity in selection procedures
There are three approaches to validation, criterion-related validity,
content validity, and construct validity
Criterion-Related Validity
Criterion-Related validity – the extent to which a selection tool
predicts or significantly correlates with, important elements of work
behaviour
oI.e. in a sales job its common to use sales figures as a basis for
comparison
Two types of criterion-related validity
oConcurrent validity – the extent to which test scores match
criterion data obtained at about the same time from current
employees
oPredictive validity – the extent to which applicants’ test
scores match criterion data obtained from those
applicants/employees after they have been on the job for some
indefinite period
Cross-validation – verifying the results obtained from a validation
study by administering a test or test battery to a different sample
(Drawn from the same population)
Correlational methods are used to determine the relationship
between predictor information (i.e. test scores and criterion data)
Scatterplots
This method is preferred to other validation approaches because its
based on empirical data
Validity generalization – the extent to which validity coefficients
can be generalized across situations
Content Validity
Content validitythe extent to which a selection instrument (i.e. a
test) adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to
perform a particular job
The closer the content of the selection instrument is to
actual work samples/behaviour the greater its content validity
Used to evaluate job knowledge and skill tests
Not expression in correlational terms
Construct Validity
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Construct validity – the extent to which a selection tool measures
a theoretical construct or trait
Typical constructs: intelligence, mechanical comprehension, anxiety
Tests consists of a variety of tasks that measure the construct of
mechanical comprehension
Measuring construct validity requires showing that the psychological
trait is related to job performance
Sources of Information about Job Candidates
Sources of information provide as reliable and valid a picture as
possible of an applicant’s potential for success on the job
Application Forms
Provide a quick and systematic means of obtaining a variety of
information about the applicant
Provide information for deciding whether an applicant meets the
minimum requirements for experience, education, etc
Provide a basis for questions the interviewer will ask about the
applicant’s background
Offer sources for reference checks
Provides information regarding the employer’s conformity with
various laws/regulations
Following questions are created from an application form
oApplication data – helps managers know when the form was
completed and gives them a time limit that the form should be
on file
oEducational background – provide all schools, but no dates
oExperience – work experience
oArrests/Criminal Convictions – questions about this should be
avoided
oCountry of citizenship – not permitted – allowable to ask if the
person can legally work in Canada
oReferences – permissible/advisable that the references be
provided
oDisabilities – avoid asking about disabilities, hospitalization or if
they receive workers compensation
Some organizations use a weighted application black (WAB)
oInvolves the use of a common standardized employment
application form that’s designed to distinguish between
successful and unsuccessful employees
oHelpful for reducing turnover costs in the hospitality industry
Online Applications
The biggest change in hiring over the years is the online application
process
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