Descriptive statement = makes a claim about what is the case (i. e. , the facts). Normative statement = makes a claim about what ought to be the case. How to determine the level of the ethical issue: Ethical dilemma: situation in which an individual, organization, or industry must reflect upon. ^stakeholder claims in determining what is the morally appropriate decision, policy, or action. True ethical dilemmas involve a right vs. right, or a wrong vs. wrong, as opposed to a right vs. wrong. ^those wrongful acts which he/she performed (or wrongly omitted) and for those injurious effects he/she brought about (or wrongly failed to prevent) when this was done knowingly and freely. ^(i) uncertainty; (ii) difficulty; (iii) degree of involvement; (iv) non-seriousness of the wrong. Example: the milgram experiments levels of shock for each mistake; subject felt pain of 75 volt shock. At 150 volts - demanded to be released.