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Anthropology th September 9 2013 Body Rituals among the Nacirema  Are a poorly understood group, living in between the Canadian Cree  Their mythology is that there nation was originated by a cultural hero by the name of Notgnihsaw who is known for his strength of chopping down a cherry tree (spirit and truth)  They are characterized by highly developed market economy, however most of their fresh fruit are used for rituals. The focus of this is for their human body- this is not unusual however their ceremonies are unique  Every house has one or more shrines for worship. The ceremonies held in homes are personal, private and secret. The only time they discuss this are with children who are being initiated into these mysteries.  Focal part of the shrine is the box or chest that is built into the wall. In this box there are charms and potions in which no native believes they can live without.  Most powerful are medicine men. They decide what ingredients go into these potions- writes them down in an ancient language that only med men and herbalists know.  Rituals such as washing face in the shrine with holy water, and putting bundles of hog hair in your mouth , going to see holy mouth men 2 times per year, men scraping and lacerating their faces with blades and woman baking their heads in ovens are part of the rituals  NACIREMA=AMERICAN  Clues in the story that describeAmerica. This author makes things that we do every day and makes them odd. Just like anthropologists go in and try to figure things out and unscramble/ make sense of them.  Holy mouth men= dentists  Medicine Men= doctors  Scraping face= shaving  Holy water= washing face September 11 2013 Social Anthropology Anthropological approach that retains the British focus on social anthropology at the same time as it adds theAmerican focus on culture to produce something slightly different from either one In SocialAnthropology we strive to look beyond the world of every day experiences to discover the patterns and meanings behind the world and try to understand people’s lives. Political Anatomy Created by Michael Foucault, this term refers to the human body as a political anatomy. By this he means that people’s bodies are controlled by others speed and efficiency. Anthro= human everything human beings do currently and have done in the past. Logia= the study of how and when we’ve become humans+ comparing us to others. 4 Different Approached of Study: Biological Anthropology: focuses on human beings as one of the great multitudes of organisms on earth. Archaeology: studies artefacts and human history Linguistic Anthropology: examines the relations between language and culture Sociocultural Anthropology: looks at how societies are structured and cultural meanings Problems: How to understand people, why ways of life change, how people justify violence, is it possible to solve problems of social inequality? Culture: The nature of experiencing that are shared by people and passed on form generation to generation, including the meanings that people give to things, events, activities and people.  Human beings are cultural animals; they ascribe meaning of their own creations to objects, events, persons, behaviours, and emotions.  The system of meanings about the nature of experiences that are shared by people and passed down from one generation to another (page 6 of text). THE FORMATIVE YEARS OFANTHROPOLOGY 1. Armchair Anthropologist: It involves the collection of missionaries, explorers, and colonists who had sustained contact with non-western people. Used there documents to make comparisons and generalizations about the ways of life of various groups. 2. Ethnographic Method: researchers in the lives and cultures of people they are trying to understand in order to comprehend the meanings these people ascribe. 3. Ethnography: a written description and analysis of a particular group of people, usually based upon anthropologist fieldwork. 4. Participant Observation: participating in daily tasks and observing daily interactions among groups. 5. Fieldwork: engaging in long term interactions of groups of people. This means living with people and participating in daily tasks. BELIEFS OF OTHERS 1. Ethnocentric Fallacy: mistaken notion that the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures can be judged from the perspective of one’s own culture. 2. Ethnocentrism: the tendency to judges the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures from the perspectives of one’s own culture 3. Cultural Relativism: the attempt to understand the belief and behaviours of others cultures in terms of the culture in which they are found 4. Relativistic Fallacy: the idea to make moral judgments about the beliefs and behaviours of members of other cultures. Cannibalism In Europe  2 centuries ago, European physicians prescribed human flesh, heart, bones etc. for cures to arthritis, reproductive disorders, sciatica, warts, and skin blemishes. Human blood was also the cure for epilepsy (thought to be the cure) and was supposed to be drank right after the supplier died.  The Wari ate the bodies of the dead because they thought that it was the compassionate thing to do.  By eating the body it would help them get over the lose instead of remembering the cold body just lying there.  The Wari believed that the dead enter the body of animals that are commonly eaten by them creating a cycle of eating and being eaten (food chain). nd Sept 22 2013 Ethnological Fieldwork Bronislaw Malinowski was one of the first anthropologists to abandon the armchair approach. He revolutionized the primacy of fieldwork (interviews, surveys, taking pictures, recordings etc.). Later he would turn his studies into an ethnography (a written description/ analysis) of the experience with the group of people. The ethnography was the end production of a fieldwork. He felt that by doing this he would be able to have a “native’s point of view”. 1. Salvage Anthropology: An approach that arose in the late 1800s when anthropologists witnessed the extinction of the indigenous people. Anthropologists quickly document the essence of the groups before they vanish into thin air. 2. Multi-seated Framework: the process of connecting localized experience of framework with boarder, global process. Understanding multiple issues from different sites. 3. Representation: the way in which a group of people are depicted in writing or through images. 4. Essentialism: the act of creating generalized or stereotypes about the behavior of culture of a group of people. 5. Cultural Text: a way of thinking about culture as a text of significant symbols- words, gestures, drawings, natural objects- that carries meaning. To understand a culture we must be able to decipher the meanings of the symbols that comprise a cultural text. We must be able to understand the meanings in the language, objects, and activities that are shared by members of our society. The Balinese Cockfight People overlooked the cockfight. They discovered that the cockfight wasn’t only for betting or raising money for funds, but it was a also for raising status in Bali. The cockfights was also a metaphor for social, political, and economic relations in Bali. September 30 2013 What can we learn through anthropology? What can you do with it? 1) How and why might the following professions or businesses be interested in hiring someone with some training in anthropology?  Microsoft  Canadian international DevelopmentAgency  AIDS committee in Toronto 2) Rylko Bauer Singer and Van Willigen, “ReclaimingAppliedAnthropology”  Applied anthropology is anthropology in use  How did applied anthropology in the mid 20 century begin to rethink their relationships with local committees? What changed?  What are some of the critiques of applied anthropology discussed in the article? What are the author’s response to these critiques? Some criticism about applied anthropology are:  Anthropology origin comes out of colonialism. Therefore there us the same accusation that the wealthy anthropologists come in and start telling people how to do things (just like many years ago) *reinforce old power qualities  Stereotypes- anthropologists basing their studies on stereotypes however their studies are completely wrong.  They are not really doing pure research because they are paid to do advocating for the group that hired them. Plus they do work that forces only on policies and reports.  Applied anthropology is not public enough. 3) Examples of some jobs that anthropologists do outside of academia? Some jobs that anthropologists do are: Visual anthropologists, medical anthropologist, federal archeologist, Forensic anthropology, museum archeologist, violence against women groups etc. Cultural Resource Management: finding cultural heritage, mapping their findings. Uncovering artifacts (archeologists). Public Archeologists: shows the past through excavation.Also uncovers artifacts. Government and Tribal Archeologist: to protect cultural sites. Identity It is always changing no matter what. You are not born a gender it is something that you learn as you grow older. Male and female is not really the same as man and woman. Hedgu. Masculinity and Femininity Even through we have representations of how man and woman could be, doesn’t mean they are all like that. This is what we mean that media shifts the way we see people and the way we view things. Drag Queen: men that dress like women Gay: men that have sexual intercourse with other men. Men that were gay did not publicize it because they could have been punished for it. But if you are a queen then because a male is dressed as a girl they don’t get punished because they look like a girl. Cultural Construction of Identity: Identity Formation 1. How do people determine who they are and how they communicate who they are to other people?  Enculturation  Identities are critical to the functioning of any society because they help individuals understand their own place, role and functional in the world, and how to relate to others. 2. How do concepts of personhood vary from society to society?  Societies have different ideas of values about personhood.  Individuals vs. holistic views of the self  The egocentric vs socio-centric societies  Dividing societies into these societies may be problematic  How might we argue that NorthAmerica societies have socio-centric elements?  Imagined Community: the idea that someone has the exact same personality out there as you. 3. Identity Toolbox Gender  Gender = universal category and a biological fact?  Gender is generally defined as the attributes of the categories of man and woman; gender is culturally constructed.  Gender stratification- a universal trait?  Alternative gender roles; two spirit identities and third gender societies. October 21 2013 Gender Hierarchy The ways in which attributes of “men” and “women” are valued differently and related to the distribution of resources, prestige and power. Gender hierarchy and hegemonic masculinity (values of masculinity at the norm). Questioning power in gender hierarchy. Societies in which woman are secluded. They have certain restrictions and regulations against woman. This is called gender stratification. Communicating Identities  Rites of passage Change in status- separation, liminality, and incorporation. Statues changes in our identities.  Objects, bodies, and industries  Gift giving and identities for example a Barbie to a girl might teach a girl how to act and look like. The giver of the gift has a tie with the receiver signals the relationship between them (the action of reciprocity). Gift giving rituals in other societies are: 1. Kula Ring & 2. Potluck- giving of food in the community. Gifts are also associated with history, past and meaning. Turn commodities into gifts. Rationalize to ourselves- the time you invest in thinking about the girt. We tend to put a money value on our relationships with people.  Commodities vs. Gift: how do NorthAmerican Transform. Commodities into gifts? Commodity= store bought gifts Gift= family heirloom. Something passed down from a family member. Reciprocity= always giving back to someone. Collective Identities and Social Movements Indigenous People What are some of the ways in which indigenous people in our society have been defined in the media? Outsider’s assumptions about the collective identities of indigenous people can be used against them. Not everyone who claims membership in a collective identity experiences or practices it in the same way. The way members outside the group see others can have a negative impact on the group. Ecuadorian Indians, the Nation and Class in Historical Perspective Ahistorical look at the formation of conaie collective identities. They are dynamic processes that are always intertwined with other identities and social factors like politics, economics, and class. We cannot say that it formed from a bunch of indigenous groups forming together. We have to look at the political and economic elites and their impact on the economy. The changes and economic changes and how they effected the community.  Identities teach us consciously and unconsciously of what and how genders should be.  Some societies likeAmerica is individualistic.And others are holistic.  Ego vs. socio-centric  Gender is a biological fact and is based at birth. Not all people think in 2 bodies (queens, gays or homosexuals are referred to as third gender) October 28 2013 Why are Metaphors, Rituals and Zombies good to think with? 1. Belief System of World Views: an encompassing picture of reality based on shared cultural assumptions about how the world works. 2. Metaphors: are intrinsically absurd, but they are a crucial component of human existence, and can be thought of symbolic actions to depict meanings shared by a specific group of people 3. Rituals: a dramatic rendering of meanings shared by a specific group of people in ways that make those meanings seem correct. Teaches the participants how to experience the world as if the forces were purely and truly real. 4. Witchcraft and Magic: key metaphor for stratification or planes and levels. 5. Myths: Make sense of mysteries. Become ways of understanding how certain groups deal with certain things and events 6. Camaroff and Article: the rise of the occult of witchcraft and magic in post-apartheid South Africa. Zombies They are everything we are not. They are individualistic and selfish. Contagion- humans can send out contagious viruses. The fear of over population and how one zombie can bite someone and we turn into one. Represents the consumption of society that is why most scenes in zombie movies take place in malls or stores. th November 4 2013 The Formation of World Views: The organization in social, economic, and political lives influence what we believe and vice versa. Mainstream NorthAmericans vs the Denetha world views.  Relationship to nature and land  Ideas about teaching and learning knowledge. What happens when we are confronted with changes or challenges to our worldviews?  Speculation- a way to help close gaps in not knowing  Sapphire miners in North Madagascar found that the people in Madagascar cared too much about sapphire. It did not make sense to these people as to why we were using there sapphires. They thought that we were using them for guns and bombs to destroy Iraq. However it was only used for jewelry. Colonialism, Christianity, and the Transformation of World views  Christianity and the Denetha  Revitalization method: attempts by a person to construct a more satisfying culture or worldview for themselves.  Syncretization: the process of blending or combining elements of two or more worldviews or belief systems. Teaching: believes that one can gain knowledge through dreaming, creating links between the two lands. Knowledge and power work hand in hand with the social environment. November 11 2013 1. Mama Lola by Karen McCarthy Brown (orange= side notes)  An ethnography (a genre of books, a book length examination of a socio cultural issue based on fieldwork) is an exercise in bridge building, where the anthropology tries to explain and translate how a group of people create meaning of significance in their lives.  Externally imposed definitions of Voodoo  Voodoo (based on the experience of their new world) is an example of a creole culture formation (another term of syncretization from Caribbean group). o Involves possessing people, black magic, voodoo dolls, sexual imagery, a religion with people of African descent. 2. Mama Lola Introduction (orange= answers)  Describes the altars in Mama Lola’s home. The alters are examples of syncretization because on the alters there are snakes, alcohol, skulls, candles, herbs, pictures of saints, a penis cane, and cigarettes.  What is the heart of voodoo according to the author? Healing. Helps people deal with problems of suffering, so voodoo helps to minimize the pain.  What are some key features and characteristics of voodoo? Rituals, singing, live chickens, possessing, Spirits/saints, God.  How is the voodoo view the divine different from that of the Catholic view? The law embodies conflict, representing spectrum of human behavior (spirits are not saintly).  Why is gift giving important to voodoo believers? Virtue- achieves their healthy relationships (reciprocity). Giving with being and spirit.  According to McCarthy Brown, voodoo may be closer to theAfrican roots then other new world African religions- why? Isolation, poverty, oppression.  What were some of the challenges that the author faced when doing her research on voodoo? Challenges faced were acceptance problems.Also everyone was suspicious of her- that was why people didn’t trust her. Her field work methods also had to change because in order for her to collect data she had to participate. Mama Lola Chapter 2  Azaka is a spirit of Iwa. He is responsible for farming and land (the patron saint of agriculture).  “Birthday Party” is praised byAzaka- making food and preparing for this ritual. This ties into reciprocity (a cycle of giving and receiving). When someone forgets to do something Azaka will punish them. Syncretization (mixture of Catholic and voodoo beliefs), offering of incense at church is carried out through voodoo.  Azaka gets angry at certain points  There is an anthropologist that talks about cultural text that are metaphors that represent certain things. For example the altars and the things on them such as food, money, candles, snakes, skulls, cigarettes, etc. are all metaphors for certain things involved or represented in the ritual.  Food is an important part of voodoo because it is reciprocity. It is somewhat like gift giving. Life is suffering and suffering is life, one of these ways of suffering is hunger. 75% of the Hessian’s have dealt with hunger. This is why they offer food as gift giving and in rituals. December 2 2013 1. Mackey, Chapter 4, “Becoming Indigenous: cultural difference, land and narratives of nationhood”  Exploring 3 official narratives of nationhood: the Canadian Museum of Civilization, a play and an exhibit at the National Gallery ofArt (the artifacts in the entrance are first nation artifacts. This shows acceptance of these people. The land includes everyone of Canadian culture- it does not exclude anyone. Was created to help focus of Canadian national identity. We can look at the museum as who we are and where we came from.  Mackey finds similar images and messages about Canadian national identity: despite inclusive appearances, this is really the story of settler nationhood, a story which only recognizes limited and unthreatening forms of difference  How do these narratives highlight cultural differences yet transform and limit them at the same time? The play in the reading: people come out in aboriginal clothing then someone comes out and starts rapping. Then everyone gets off the stage and a few people come out and sing a song about loving, seconds later everyone comes onto the stage dressed in regular clothing and sings along with them. This play puts forward a message about uniting as one with Canadian values. 2. Mackey Chapter 5, “Localizing Strategies: Celebrating Canada”  comparing the Waterfront festival and Canada Day celebrations in “Elmford” Ontario  How are these 2 festivals different from each other? What does each one represent or symbolize according to Mackey? These festivals are different. The first one (Waterfront) had no culturalism attached to it. It was based around food, puppet shows and social events (mostly white Canadians). Canada day celebration however had a particular theme of multiculturalism, food, dancing, music, singing, etc. Waterfront festival= white festival and town celebration. But, Canada day has an ethnic relation.  white locality versus multicultural nationhood  “The mosaic is not a picture but rather a pile of rubble”: the limits of tolerance of difference. The difference between “we” and “them”. Cultural mosaic= nothing. They represent the limits of tolerance. They do this by stating “we Canadians”. Limiting to others who are not Canadian. Creating boarders. Multiculturalism is beginning to expand and becoming a cultural nation. 3. Dominant narratives of national identity do not go unchallenged -Cree First Nations vs. Quebec 4. Film: Canada, APeople’s History (set 4, disc 4) 1. How is this official account of Canadian history organized in terms of narrative structure, key characters and chronology? 2. Where and how are First Nations and European peoples located in this historical narrative? 3. Does this documentary reinforce or challenge Mackey’s argument about the relationship between Europeans and First Nations peoples in popular narratives of Canada’s history? November 18 2013 Lecture 1. What is a nation state?  Nation state are one possibility out of many potential political formations th • Dates back to the 19 century. It is important for us to remember that the nation state is not the only way for our world to be organized. However the nation state is the most powerful political formation in out contemporary world.  Anation is a collection of people who share common language worldwide and ancestry • Constructed around a common language, world view, or ancestry.  Astate is a form of society characterized by a hierarchical ranking of people and centralized political control. • Two feature that are highlighted are: centralized political control, and hierarchical ranking of people. • States are particular formations that are defined by occupational specialization, leading to different classes. Some types of classes are working class, ruling class, land owner class etc.  Anation state is a political community that has clearly defined territorial borders and a centralized authority. • Astate with different nations: Canada + Quebec • Anation among many states: Toronto- people from one nation that are dispersed into many different states around the world (diasperits) • Example: Ogoni- distinct nations. This group is a nation but not recognized by other nations. This is often indigenous orAfrican nations. 2. Nationalism  The world view of members of a nation state  Nationalism describes (1) the belief in a national identity and emotional investments in that national identity, and (2) the action that members of a nation take to achieve (or sustain) self-determination as a nation • About the belief in and the attachment to an identity. Example: “I am Canadian” • Collective identities are very important to nationalism. 3. Benedict Anderson, “Imagined Communities”  Anderson defines the nation as a “imagined political community”; the nation is imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign. • Show that we could belong to a different nation, and to become part of a different nation. Trying to get at the idea that the nation is imagined because even the members of a specific nation, they will never know the other members of their nation. Therefore they are imagined because it is the though/ imagination of what the nation is to that person. • 3 features of a nation: (1) limited: imagined of finite boundaries. (2) Sovereign: they are free and unattached to other nations, and independent. (3) Community: there is always an idea of equality in the nation.  In order to understand the development of nations we need to recognize 3 factors: (1) the decline of religious worldwide and dynasties (2) changes to perceptions of time and (3) the rise of newspaper and print capitalism What Cause the Nation State to form? 1) The importance of trade • See #4 below 2) The importance of violence • See #5 below 3) We need to think about decline of religious views • Nationalism fills the void and turns meaningless life into destiny 4) perception of time • Medieval time the past and future could happen in the present simultaneously • Time gets organized progressively now • The new idea of time moves through empty time is central to the idea of the nation. 5) Acknowledge print capitalism • Everything in the newspaper gets built upon time. It has the effect of producing community that is similar to the nation. Every day readers read the newspaper and it impacts the way we view the nation, but this mass product makes us a shared community. 4. Nation States and Trade  States become the building blocks of an emerging global economic network- modern nation states developed out of partnerships between ruling elites and merchant’s classes.  Nation states used military force to open and maintain markets. • Building the industry. And the importance of trade to the nation state 5. Violence and nation state  The formation of the nation state in fundamentally tied to violence and conflicts: the nation state should be viewed as genocidal or ethnocidal institution. • War has promoted small villages into states. It reorganized social and political structure in small national states. • They create larger and larger entities.  Nation states are in effect mafias and gangs • They work with same basic principles to extract money and goods for themselves. They extract protection money for themselves from their own citizens.  State sponsored violence often includes actions other than killing. Ex. Symbolic forms of violence, and punishable categories of people. • Can involve torture, rape, assault, etc. • Symbolic violence means destroying symbolic monuments, forcing people to abandon their religion, erasing someone’s nation from textbooks etc. 6. FILM: WeAreAll Neighbours 1. What are the religious and national identities of the people introduced at the beginning of the video? What were the relationships between the two groups like? 2. What changes did the war bring to religious and national identities and relationships? Why? 3. Does the documentary present an example of ethnocide, genocide, both or neither? th January 6 2014 SEMESTER 2: • Forms of social inequality/ stratification/ and hierarchy • Social/ cultural construction • Social identities intersecting with other cultures How are certain identities privileged (considered more important) or marginalized (considered unimportant or pushed aside) in various social contexts? Privilege and being marginal are the process of a social and culture process. Social Identities: social hierarchy/ social stratification Social stratification is the process of social strata. 1. Social Inequality presumes a vertical order of people that can be easily separated from each other. In practice it was hard to clearly and cleanly separate these orders of people. 2. For a long time presumed that social hierarchy was natural and automatic, this is how stratification began and how the idea of inequality began. Naturalizing: emphasizes the process of making something natural or automatic. For example in the past many considered “white” people to be more privileged, and symbolized authority. However over time the meaning to be white changed over time. Different people considered “white” differently- it didn’t only mean skin colour. For example poorAmerican people at one time were considered black. Post colonialism: Historical Perspective: Demonstrates that post colonialism and historical perspectives change all the time as things change around them. Sexual Stratification Act of Alberta In 1928-1972 they were forbidding anyone from having children that were mentally ill and had other hereditary condition. Many were sterilized under this program. This was considered eugenics= controlling fertility to ensure racial purity. Leilani Muir- when she was 14 she got a low scare on an IQ test and so they tied her tubes, and in 1995 she sewed the government for wrongful sterilization and was the first to ever win. Class: Social and economic position.Also, occupation. Occupational identities rank people into occupational positions. Socioeconomic position. • Ascribed status • Achieved status (Exercise 6.1 (page 167)) Caste: Myths of caste. Such a strong idea that some Buddhist groups practice caste system even through it is a Hinduism practice. Even through it is supposed to be ascribed at birth, some people are changing their level of caste. It often changes depending where you live and where you are. Race and Racism: historical perspective. How race was social constructed in distinct context. Race is a social identity that is hereditary. Reinforces socially through what people say and through the culture. Race is a social and cultural fact. Ethnicity: ethnic identity is hereditary and ascribed. It can also be found in behavior.Although it is ascribed it is also said that what we do can shape our ethnicity. Social boundaries constituted through interaction. Intelligence: is ascribed rather than achieved. January 13 2013  Producing for far away markets (experiences examples of colonial production) Producer-consumer relationships o Experiences o Distance: How can we explain the vast inequity between the rich and poor? Ex. Bangladesh Market 1. They didn’t believe their employees 2. They hired one company but that company subcontracts other companies.  Connect contemporary with past inequality. Colonialism: military, economic, administrative domination. This is mapped onto the domination of the global north and the global south.Also refers to cultural imperialism where consumer goods are influenced from another style.Also refers to non-imperial colonialism.  Colonizer- Colonized  Colonial Enterprise- raw materials: manufacturing and exporting Colonial Production: 1. Made colonialism enterprise powerful 2. Is what powered the country 3. In colonial manufacturing the cheap labor are part of what made colonial enterprise possible. Metropole- colony (Canada, Jamaica, India etc.)  Big political decisions are made about the colony  Whiteness was expressed through the colonizer and the colonized.  What happened in the colonies also shaped what happened in the metropole.  These reflect center and periphery o Periphery- contained people and ideas that were less important (indigenous people) o Center- contained people and ideas that were more important.Are more powerful. Production: tells you about the difference between production for subsistence and industrial production. Subsistence means only produced what they needed to live. People could feel themselves on a regular basis.  Industrial Revolution: made developed countries what they are today. Peasant’s fueled the revolution.  Slave/forced/exploitative labor  Indentured labor: some people spent their whole lives being slaves. If they needed money they would borrow it from the owner, and then the owner would tell them how long they would have to work to make up for that money that they borrowed. This meant that they would sometimes work years before they started making any form of extra money. Textile Industry: Raw materials (cotton and slave labour).  Wanted more land so that they could cultivate more cotton- quicker than ever before. o In order to create more land they made 125000 native people walk more than 130 kilometers.  Manufacturing (Britain): formed the cotton into cloth and sending it out again  Trade (colonial control): controlled the restrictions on fabrics. They raised taxes making it impossible to sell Indian cloth to sell in markets. o Indians would not ware British cloth as a form of protest against the britian. Sugar Industry: Slave/forced/exploitative labor.  The workers were brought from everywhere to support the colonial enterprise. o The cane workers still managed to consume some of the sugar cane, even though the company tried really hard to prevent this. o More people ate homemade unrefined sugar (page 19). o They were very aware of the world marker for sugar (page 20)  Sugar went from a luxury to a necessity FILM: London Sugar and Slavery ~Olaudah Equiano How does the video use the historical legacy of colonial relation to make reference to contemporary inequalities?  The history of colonialism and metropoles was built upon slavery and colonial relations. IMF/ World Bank  Debt, financing, interest, austerity measures. FILM: Sugar Slaves They are treated as slaves. They work for the debts they are in and now some of them want to get rid of their debts and leave. January 20 2014 Anthropological Theory: help you to think about concrete examples.Are tools for analysis and helps us develop specific ways to approach the context.  Tools for analysis: combines their point of view (everything they have learned) with the perspectives of others. Thinking about what people say or what you find from critical angles.
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