Books to refer to- Tweyman Descarte & hums selected topics
-the concern with Descartes are with the kind of statement people make.
- What Descartes favours is 1+2 kind of statement.
- verifications trying to prove, true or false
-how do you prove prof shirt is white ? someone has to look at it. ( the colour can be
changed) This verification is empirical ( see touch taste smell in order to prove true or
- 1+2 , how will this be verified?
- how you learn it is emprircal, you see 1 and 1 which equals two.
- Difference between the shirt and 1+1 is that no one can change the 1+1 statement
which equals 2.
- modality- the confidence of the speaker in the type of connection the sentence
- shirt = the subject of the sentence prediquet = the colour of the shirt ( result)
- 4 types of modality- 1 modality of possibility ( possibly he is wearing a white shirt)
2 actuality ( as a matter of fact the shirt is white) captures what is the case stronger
then what maybe be the case 4 impossibility ( its impossible ie a round square) what
cannot be the case 3 necessity ( what must be the case)
- if its a possibility the subject and the prediquet are separable
- with impossibility the subject and the prediquet ever come together
- necessity, in the mathematical plain. The subject and the prediquet are inseparable
- How would you show that the shirt is white with modality of possibility ?
- in order to prove its separable you need to look at the shirt and deny it is white
- modality of actuality- the subject and preiquet are separable.
- in the case of 1+1=2 the subject and the preiqut are in separable because you cant
think 1+1 = 3 or anything else for that matter
- mInd has control over what colour it thinks of your shirt
- in the case of mathematics the mind has no control of that
- temporality – how long can you say the colour of the shirt is white ? until you think of a
-temporality – 1+1 =2 how long is that true ? forever
- orgin between the connection between the subject and the prediquet ?
- in the case of the shirt the orgin of the connection is the manufacture of the shirt
- what decartes points out is that this becomes a problem in philosophy ? he said God
created 1 + 1 = 2 ( that’s why you can’t deny it )
- with empirical claims you must turn to the external world to get the claim
- in the case of 1+1=2 it maybe true that when you learn this your teacher showed you
a couple of chalk or pencils, how you learned is through empirical, by seeing.
- 1+1 =2 once learned turns out to be independent of all sensory data. It is then
independent of the external world
-Our senses revel to us what can be the case and what is the case, what it cannot ever
revel is what must be the case - Therefore the truth that contain the modality of necessity are therefore called a prior
which means they are prior to experience. The truth is not dependent on your senses.
- the veri