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Lecture 3

ANT100Y1Y Lecture 3.pdf

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ANTH 1120
Ivan Prestano

ANT100Y1Y Outline for ARCHAEOLOGY Lecture 5TOPIC 5 ORIGIN AND SPREAD OF MODERN HUMANSThere is a single origin for modern Homo sapiens in southern andor eastern Africa probably around 160 KYA followed by spread around the world leaving Africa by around 7060 KYA earliest modern Homo sapiens are not immediately associated with the full range of modern behaviour they are still associated with Middle Palaeolithic stone tool typesnew aspects of material culture accumulate gradually eg elaborate bone tools new forms of stone tools beads indication of trade artprobably at least in part because evidence does not preserve nature of interaction between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals not completely clear but genetic studies indicate not much interbreedingIn many areas modern humans probably displaced Neanderthals and other preHomo sapiens rapidlylast Neanderthals went extinct around 35 KYA within about 5 KYA of spread of modern humans to Europeinteraction interbreeding conflict competition once Homo sapiens has been around for millennia and most aspects of modern human behaviour have developed we have the Upper Palaeolithic PeriodUpper Palaeolithic Periodbegins around 40 KYA in Southwest Asia and Europe is equivalent to the Later Stone Age in Africa around the same timeclearly associated with modern humansMajor Trends in the Upper Palaeolithic 1 Increasingly specialized stone tool technologyemphasis on Blade Technology finely crafted parallelsided flakes average 10 cm long require elaborate preparation of the coreused to make a variety of tools eg backed blade knife endscraper burin projectile pointswhy bladesa conserve raw material get more working edge from a given amount of raw material b produce more versatile tools c regularity in tools allows hafts to be reused blades and other tools often retouched by pressure flakingpressing tiny flakes off edges of stone tool rather than striking the stoneallows more precise shaping of tool
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