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Lecture 2

ANTH 1120 Lecture 2: ANTH 1120 READINGS 01/20/16
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8 Pages
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Winter 2016

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1120
Professor
Christianne Stephens
Lecture
2

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ANTH 1120 READINGS
January 20, 2016
Introduction:


 !    ! ! " 
        #     #"     ##

# $%&%'!  
()
      *    *  
!+, -.#!!
#!#!# 
  !!    /            
0!  
!  !  # 1  # 234205406
,#!#
GLOBALIZATION7,###
"#!!!
 #  894
7:#*! 
!# 89 ;'
6
What is Neoliberalism and what role does it play in Economic
Globalization?
ECONOMIC SYSTEM        +
-#!!
##
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  7    8    
+<=
Unregulated Market        #  #      
#" 
#>
o="#
0#!
  !        "?    #    
 ?#
Regulated Market #  !   #"
"
Karl Polanyi’s argument#"+
-!# 
        #  *          
>"
o@(6<
o(!AB@
A*" 
#    
C<3
o !
'!
D& !  #  [email protected]  (    
  !!! 
'#'DE
DF  #    #  #  !      
!  A        <    
!!6
NEOLIBERALISM      !!          
##     
!!#*
FREE TRADE         >#   
!#!'!'#
!!!0
    # #    >#  
!
The Emergence of Neoliberalism
A!!!#
!!!. G"
C=@
        !!      
! !!"
 7liberals8
7neo8
  #  #  !!      <      
  
   #        
!!##"!!
  "          )          
!
!!!"
!"#
          
"!  
"!
     # !  !  
 !!
"
A'!!+!!6#H"(
 DF- ! *  !    
"!!
'!"
  '!   *   !
0#
!
;            
    !!  :I  3      
  !,      J    !      #  
#         ! 
!! '*
MARKET EXTERNALITIES!
!!! "#
!
What role do nation-states play in market economies? What is the
relationship between nation-states and neoliberalism?
NEOLIBERAL PHILOSOPHY *
o(  9  "!      
"! 
#

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Description
ANTH 1120 READINGS January 20, 2016 Introduction:  June 20, 2010: 4 meeting of G-20 leaders in Toronto, Ontario.  They discussed the future of global economics, international aid and development strategies, measures for promoting open markets, and means of stimulating economic growth in the wake of a worldwide recession.  Two-day event, costing $868 million: most expensive security event in Canada’s history  The mainstream media homogenized and sensationalized the protesters (selfish and violent). Few media outlined peaceful protesters and what the protesters were protesting against. They were voicing for the populations directly affected by decisions made by the G20 leaders: Indigenous groups, environmentalists, gay right activists, anti- poverty groups. They were questioning the way GLOBALIZATION benefited the wealthiest and most powerful segments of society.  GLOBALIZATION: “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.”  Anthony Giddens.  “What is new in this era of globalization is the ability of capital to move sites of production across national borders with relative ease.”  Roxana Ng What is Neoliberalism and what role does it play in Economic Globalization?  ECONOMIC SYSTEM: the distribution of goods and services (rules, mechanisms, institutions, and systems of relations) through which people get what they want.  INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: “the great transformation” due to technological changes (term coined by Karl Polanyi.  Unregulated Market: the generation of wealth was the only goal, resulted in abysmal working conditions, environmental degradation, and wild economic fluctuations. o Polanyi addressed that unregulated market would soon destroy the very foundations of society. It would disrupt social relations through the operations of the labour market; it would destroy the environment; it would reduce freedom.  Regulated Market: enacting laws on pollution, land use, and working conditions could destroy the market.  Karl Polanyi’s argument: the need to allow the market (mechanisms for buying and selling) to operate freely without government interference, and the need to somehow minimize the social and natural damages inflicted by the market. o State-run economies: Cuba, North Korea o Capitalist Economies: United States  Economic systems are generally categorized as market-driven or state-run where the government controls virtually every economic activity.  John Maynard Keynes: British economist o Governments should regulate their economies through spending, tax policies, interest rates, and so on.  1960s: rapid economic growth in US and Canada due to government involvement in the economy, support of labour unions, and a progressive tax system which marginal tax rates ranged as high as 90%.  1970s: slow economic growth which pressured to change economic policies. Economists began to abandon Keynesian economics, and proposed Neoliberalism.  NEOLIBERALISM: an economic philosophy that argues that the state should withdraw from any involvement in regulating the economy. This philosophy is often synonymous with globalization.  FREE TRADE: the removal of barriers to the free flow of goods and capital between nations by eliminating import and export taxes as well as subsidies paid to farmers and business people. It may also mean reducing environmental or social laws when they restrict the flow of goods and capital. The Emergence of Neoliberalism  Emerged from a group of economists, historians, and philosophers who gathered around political philosopher Friedrich von Hayek to establish the Mont Pelerin Society.  They argued that totalitarian philosophies not only endangered freedom but also threatened private property and the free market.  They called themselves “liberals” because they adhered to ideals of freedom, and “neo” because they adhered to neoclassical economic theory, which was opposed to the Keynesian ideas about state involvement in the economy.  They argued that well-being is best served by liberating individual entrepreneurs to operate within a framework of strong property rights, free markets, and free trade. The state’s role should be limited to safeguarding the integrity of money and maintaining military, police, and legal structures to secure property rights and protect markets. The state should also open markets in areas such as education, water, land, health care, and social security. Other than that, state intervention should be kept to a minimum, because state can never have enough information to second-guess markets on matters such as prices, and because their involvement allows special interest groups such as unions, environmentalists, and trade groups to distort the operations of the market.  Examples of neoliberal economic policies (applied in New York City in the 1970s): privatizing state-run enterprises, reducing the value of their currency thus making goods produced in the country cheaper for foreign buyers and thereby encouraging exports, and making foreign goods more expensive for citizens thereby discouraging imports. Included reducing state funding for education, welfare, and health, and imposing user fees for school attendance.  Removing government involvement in the economy is central to neoliberal economic philosophy. Why? Because businesses can be more profitable, create more jobs, and help in economic growth by allowing costs that are involved in the production, distribution, consumption, and disposal of goods and services to be externalized.  MARKET EXTERNALITIES: costs that are not included in the prices that people pay, such as environmental degradation, health risks, and waste disposal. What role do nation-states play in market economies? What is the relationship between nation-states and neoliberalism?  NEOLIBERAL PHILOSOPHY: the driving force behind globalization. o Central idea  to keep governments from interfering in the functioning of the market, yet the nation-state still plays a vital role in how the economy functions. NATION: can be scattered across many states, either by choice or by force; a collection of people who share a common language, world view, and ancestry.  NATION-STATES (countries): a political community that has clearly defined territorial borders and centralized authority. o Nation-states keep public order, maintain armies, collect tribute or taxes, etc. What’s the difference between earlier states vs modern nation-states? The modern state influences and controls trade. o Each state was now the guardian of its own “national economy”. One need only to examine the real costs of even the most basic commodities to appreciate the role that nation-states played. o Nation-state develops tax laws, financial policies, environmental regulations, labour laws, and the like, that help corporations and consumers avoid paying the real costs of production and consumption. And besides all this, the nation-state maintains a standing army, to protect us all from foreign invaders, but more realistically to guarantee the maintenance of foreign governments with policies that are friendly to businesses and multinational corporations. o Corporations look to nation-states to further their interests. o Consumers look to the nation-state to keep the prices of things within their reach. o Workers expect the nation-state to enact policies to enhance job and wage growth. What is the role of the nation-state in an increasingly neoliberalized global economy?  David Korten argued that national boundaries are no longer relevant due to transnational institutions like WTO.  World Trade Organization (WTO): established in 1995 by international treaty. Goal  to reduce trade barriers among its 140 member nations so goods and services could flow freely across national boundaries. WTO can pressure countries t
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