ANTH 1120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Coercive Monopoly, Migrant Worker, Enculturation

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14 Aug 2016
Department
Course
migration
migration questions
why do people move from
place to place?
some forced to move against
will i.e. in colonialism slave
trade.
coercion
slave trade
manipulation, servitude
force, links to experiences of
war
pull factors things that draw people to other
places
better education, better social
situations
work opportunities
security
to keep up with immigrant
neighbours that send money
back home
employment, support, bigger
minimal wage
kinship: connections, media,
and advertising promote middle
class lifestyle. to motivate
people to dream of a middle
class abroad. to spur travel and
sentiment idea of what life is like
over there.
push factors
violence
government situations
climate
lack of opportunities, to meet
life aspirations
only 3% move beyond borders.
decision to migrate requires
resources .
bridges and barriers
factors that enable or inhibit
migration
good deal of money i.e. visas,
recruiters, recruitment firms.
free movement of populations
still not promoted. i.e. border
patrols, decisions on who may
leave and who may enter.
one common bridge: chain
migrations: movement of
people facilitated by support of
networks or family and friends
who have already migrated.
facilitated by technology,
kinship connections,
advantages: can cross both
closed and official borders. high
cost increases and intensifies
flow of migrants. people will try
for best in their lives. other
migration bridges:
media acts by providing
understanding of where you’re
going, gives you a script where
you imagine youserlf in
advertising
colonial histories and political
connections
already enculturated to some
extent. i.e. mexico to spain,
structural similarities. i.e.
procedures, buildings,
aid and investment invest in someone’s financial
needs.
religion familiar customs
language i.e. english to english
remittances and cumulative
causation
44 billion dollars in 2010.
includes: 325 millions sent by
migrants to developing nations.
how migrants send money
back: western union. most
support families, also senior
centres etc. smaller percentage
go to businesses and
enterprises. guarantee a place
to return to if things don’t go
the way it should or for senior
arrangements. Remittances
provide not only an economic
foundation but investment in
social status. i.e. reciprocity and
visible status.
cumulative causation:
accumulation of factors that
create a culture in which
migration comes to be
expected. children grow up
expecting they’re part of
migration pattern and prepare.
i.e. learning cultural traditions,
language accumulation.
who are today’s migrants?
political categories, for the state
to take a hold on particular
groups
labour migrant
moves in search of a low-skill
and low wage job, often filling
an economic niche that native-
born workers will not work. in
few cases they stay in the
country for longer.
places like greece, ‘migrant
works’ are derogatory terms,
due to stigma i.e. under the
table activities.
professional migrant
highly trained individual who
moves to fill an economic niche
in a middle-class profession
often marked by shortages in
the receiving country.
have social capital (i.e. more
than one language, social skills,
kinship networks abroad)
necessary to make successful
moves. includes ppl that move
country to country as part of
their jobs.
entrepreneurial migrants:
person who moves to a new
location to conduct trade and
establish a business.
securing labour or things to sell
are obstacles. to overcome they
go for social ties. dark side:
exploitation, they take
advantage of new migrants to
make their business successful.
refugees: person who has been
forced to move beyond his or
her national borders because of
persecution, armed conflict, or
natural disaster
subcatagory: internally displace
people, who’s been forced to
move from country of origin due
to persecution. move within
own nation.
where do people move to and
from?
how is immigration affecting me
today?
rise of capitalism: create move
from rural to urban.
Globalization has spurred
migration: international jobs,
knowledge about different
places, desires. Corporations
move around the world and
create migration. also disrupts
local economic and political
relationship and links others to
global economies.
article
neoliberalism (hallmarks)
eliminating trade barriers (no
protection for local economies)
reducing worker’s rights
reducing taxes and tariffs
(reduced public funds)
new markets (expansion into
new areas)
more flow of workers (follow
opportunity)
governments in the service of
financial system (not the people)
government initiatives
supposed to be in the purest
liberal form
regional wars emerge around
access to resources
because: you want it, don’t
want to give it to corporation.
Corporation take resources of
people i.e. colonialism
Gap in wealth grows.
Everywhere.
regions get richer, other regions
get poorer i.e. west vs south
with rise in neoliberalism:
change in state and
opportunities
greek government no longer
sovereign. actively harming
population by dismantling
healthcare. to diminish quality of
life in order to service its loans
and create opportunities for
international corporations. In
canada, politicians can go for
corporation interests over
population interests i.e. pipeline
fiasco.
public argument: what’s good
for the corporation is good for
the people. but no evidence
that private wealth creates jobs.
i.e. to enrich Microsoft does not
mean enrich area around
microsoft.
poorer families rely in
international NGOs to get
healthcare. In brazil: families
can drop off unproductive family
members into places where
burdensome families can be
dumped. It’s legal, sanctioned
government policy. The majority
who have no been abandoned:
the precarious. people living
under conditions of precocity.
what do you think it means to
be precarious? no financial or
social stability. Insecurity about
present and future.
what does precocity feel like?
tenuous. it’s a moral thing: you
should be working, helping
others.
why do you think states
abandon certain individuals and
groups?
nor part of economic sphere,
state can’t afford to give equal
health. How do they get away
with providing unequal services
or by eliminating services
you’ve had all along? language
in neoliberal ways.
how do they achieve this
abandonment in a socially
acceptable way?
funding for schools i.e. who has
value and who doesn’t, made
normal
modern and global economy
has become an economy of
abandonment. both
corporations and state have
begun to identify groups as ‘not
useful’, thus gives small
degrees of investment. Not
huge in Canada but in the us,
students who struggle get less
funding and those with high
performance get more funding.
women and migration
gendered experience of
migration
women with babies treated with
special treatment, oppression,
men find themselves with low
wages. women take on
undocumented jobs so start
supporting the family unit.
Women can tap onto social
networks. many women
enhance economic and social
status.
new patterns of migration
empowerment
exploitation (sex and labour
trafficking)
differences in immigrants and
refugees: governments would
rather immigrants than
refugees. For immigrants they
can choose, and they
contribute. immigrants can be
exploited more. Refugees not
necessarily poor. The first
million of refugees were
accepted since more financially
well.
what is the difference to a
government between allowing
in an adult migrant and a child
migrant?child: enculturate, train.
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