ANTH 1120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Cultural Anthropology, Cultural Imperialism, Snowmobile

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14 Aug 2016
Department
Course
chapter 9 Anthropology, cultural
change, and globalization
outline the history of
international adoption in the
west and why the practice has
a profound effect on cultures at
both the macro and micro levels
macro
micro
kinship ties are broken: (1) in
Ayacucho (Peru) the state takes
children away from child-
circulation if no family member
has the financial means to take
care of them
history of adoption in north
america
how has mass communication,
technology, and global markets
changed both how and what
anthropologists study?
why is studying globalization
important and why is
anthropology well suited to
understand the processes of
globalization?
how has globalization created a
shift in the relationship between
culture and place?
the relationship between culture
and place has weakened due to
globalization (the de-
territorialization of culture).
Factors that have weakened it:
the internet and other
technologies allows for ideas
and goods to be exchanged at
faster rates,
this does not imply cultural
imperialism, in which cultural
diversity will be gone and
replace with Western culture.
this isn’t possible since 1) when
cultural traits are borrowed the
undergo change in order to ‘fit’
local circumstances 2) other
people from other cultures are
engaged in the exchange of
ideas and goods
cultural imperialism example:
residential schools
define the terms change,
progress, and modernization
using examples from the
chapter
progress: has a direction, from
negative to positive
circumstances
change: the consequences to
any action or thought
modernization
implies direction from antique to
current
includes material, technological,
and individual progress
from a western perspective
access to formal education,
democratic political processes,
etc
the debate
supporters ‘benefits outweigh the
inconveniences’
critics
the consequential cultural
change leads to increased
social inequality and
degradation of environment
(modernization does not equal
progress)
example: Skolt Lapps, group in
northern finland. in 1960s,
adopted snowmobile to herd
reindeer—>what we would call
‘modernization’—>economic
sphere changed: dependency
on outside economic
transactions and government
assistance increased, men left
village to look for wage labour—
>cultural relations changed:
men and reindeer did not have
same relation, reindeer
numbers declined and reindeer
feared the men on the
machines
effects increased flow of capital and
goods worldwide
drawing on the tragedy in
Bangladesh, explain how the
increased flow of capital and
goods has local and
international implication
local
the garment industry has
become an important income
source, especially for women
international
clothing manufacturers have
insisted government of own
nation and host nation to have
more control over workplace
conditions
explain the process of migration
and outline the effects of
economic migration across the
world and in Qatar
economic migration: migrants
who temporarily relocate so as
to work
across the world
send money back home. this is
a major source of capital for
many developing nations
In Qatar
increase of employment of
transnational household
workers
social interactions occurred in
two lines: (1)those between
Qatari citizens and foreign
nationals (2)those between
groups who share Qatari
citizenry but are from different
cultural backgrounds
social divisions: Qataris prefer
to live near those who are
similar to themselves—this
preference excludes non-
Qataris, and Qataris from
different class, culture, and
religious backgrounds
outline Walsh’s work in
Madagascar and explain why
the goals of local residents are
inconsistent with the foreign
demands of mining and
tourism. Why is it important for
those living outside of
Madagascar to understand how
the processes of globalization
have an impact upon those
living there?
explain the difference between
traditional ethnography and
multi-site ethnography
how has the movement of
people and goods around the
world has changed cultures and
how we understand the
concept of culture?
people
has changed cultures since
people’s priorities have
changed to finding wage labour
in urban centres. This can result
in the demolishing of support
networks and adjustment to city
life and low wage labour can
have psychological effects
new current characteristics of
migration: 1) high numbers of
people no longer living in the
nation they were born in or
raised 2)it’s now easy for
migrants to keep in contact with
families 3) immigration patterns
i.e. in first path of 20th century,
migrants into US, CAN, AUS
were primarily from Europe
4)immigration is not primarily
from developing to developed
countries. Roughly half of
immigrants that come from the
south migrate to other
developed countries
products
process of a manufacturing
plant can bring jobs to area and
circulate capital into community
for the existence of other
services like restaurants BUT
these pay is low in order for
corporation to profit (thus why
working conditions are bad)
little regard given to impact on
the interests and well-being of
the locals where a product is
sourced, manufactured and/or
distributed
explain the process of migration
and outline the effects of
economic migration around the
world
social, economic, cultural, and
demographic processes in one
geographic area might have
originated in a nation removed
from the study
outline Boellstorfs ethnographic
study ‘coming of age in second
life,’ including his
methodological choices, his
findings, and what his work
suggests about the future of
cultural anthropology.
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