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Lecture 5

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ANTH 2140
Michael Gregg

ANTH 2140 Lecture #5 Oct. 03.2012 - Emergence of anatomical humans - Models for evolutionary relationship of Homo sapiens and other Homo species - “Modern” human behaviour MIDTERM - 40 marks total (20% grade) - 16 short answers (1-4 marks per question) - Harris Matrix (available on Moodle) - Study guide provides terms to study for the test - What was the first hominid to leave Africa? o Homo erectus - What major biological and cultural factors allowed it to adapt to a range of ecological niches in Eurasia? o Tools (achelean) o Tool use o Larger brain o Walking upright - 1.8 MYA Fossil Homo erectus, earliest dated, Lake Turkana, Kenya, Africa - Achelean industry associated with Homo erectus - Technology found in Africa, Europe and Asia - Homo antecessor, Earliest fossil evidence in Europe, 8000 KYA o Perhaps an offshoot of Homo erectus - Homo heildelbergensis, intermediary species, Africa and Europe o Bigger brain than Homo erectus - Is Neanderthalis the similar species of erectus? - Europe, Middle east, Central Asia, Southern Siberia, No evidence of any in Africa - Tool technology 100-50 KYA by neanderthalis and modern human in the Middle East - Sharing genetic material? - What evidence furthers our understanding of Homo sapiens and other Homo species? o Sharing of tools, interaction physically o Genetic mapping DNA similarities o Fossil bone structure, similarities in physical structures o Archeological materials o Multiregional, gene-equality o Out of Africa, Homo sapiens pushed other species out of the areas o Hybridization theory, Homo sapiens and Neanderthalis interbreed and the Homo sapien gene overrun Neanderthal population - Dramatic change in material culture in Europe is direct result of replacement of Neanderthals by “invading” Homo sapien population - Wolpoff argued early European Hom sapiens have more physical characteristics in common with Neanderthals than with early Homo sapiens from the Middle East - Green et al 2010 – Draft sequence of Neanderthal genome - Krause et al 2010 – complete mitochondrial DNA genome of unknown Southern Siberia species - Most people’s genomes today contain archaic DNA from ancient interbreeding - 2% Sub Saharan Africa: unknkown African source - 2
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