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Lecture 7

ANTH 2140 Lecture 7.docx

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York University
ANTH 2140
Michael Gregg

Lecture 7 October-17-12 11:52 AM Steps leading to plant and animal domestication  Transition from hunter/gatherer to food production was not uniform process Hearths of Agriculture  At least 8 independent centres for domestication of plants and herd animals  No evidence of this in Europe, Asia or Australia Climate change ca. 20,000 years ago  o Warmer and wet o Herd animals shift habitats o Mega fauna hunted to death o Some species disappear o Oxygen isotope maximum last glacial maximum o Hunters settle and villages emerge o Humans begin to consume broader range of food o Significant increase of plant consumption o Changes how humans obtain food  Circulating pattern of resource procurement  Seasonal movement  Radiating pattern of acquiring resources  Settlement  Hunters increasingly settled in late paleolithic period  Clusters of small circular structures  Ornamentation burial of some in community  Status differentiation  New technologies appear o Basketry o Pottery o Ceramics (the worlds first synthesized material) o Beakers found in a number of caves in China dating ca. 20KYA (10KYA agriculture came about) o Increasing evidence for pottery in pre-agriculture Eurasia  Jomon handmade pottery from Japan has both functional and ritual symbolic uses o Some quite ornate o 13 KYA o No compelling evidence of status difference in this region  What species was domesticated first/ o Dog  5 mitochondrial DNA lineages in dog genome  Multiple domestications in China, Europe and Middle East  Argued domesticated 35 KYA  Dogs accompanied humans to New World  Wolf pups can be tamed  Wolves scavengers symbiotic relationship with hunter/gatherers  Became reliant on humans for food (wolves)  Archaeological evidence of Dog domestication  Burial of dogs and humans together  12 KYA  Interpreted as domestication  Shape of snout like dog, not wolf  Archaic period dog burials popular in North America  Illinois, Utah, Tennessee, Alabama  Evidence dogs were eaten in later periods Agriculture  Relied on cereal grains and larger animals  Intentional propagation of food materials  Domesticated product genetically modified  Unable to survive and reproduce without human intervention  Domesticated yields much greater  Indicators for domestication: o Skeletal structure changes o Domesticated are generally smaller o Females for offspring, and milk, males for meat o More yield from milk herd than from meat herd o Sudden appearance of animals outside the natural habitat Higher levels of infection   Disease associated with animals and farming practices  Early farmers had shorted life span , smaller figure than the hunter/gatherer Gordon V. Childe's Neolithic Revolution  Active controls of food production  Increased food supply  Increased population  Settled life in villages “The Neolithic Revolution was the climax of a long process. It has to be presented as a single event because archaeology can only recognize the result: the several steps leading up thereto are beyond the range of direct observation.”  Childe's Oasis hypothesis, 1936 o Widespread desiccation of the middle East o Human/plants/animals forced into oases o Domestication resulted from direct human interaction o Symbiotic relationship developed between species Robert Braidwood  "hilly flanks" hypothesis 1940's  Domestication first occurred where wild ancestors are found  Didn't happen earlier because culture Ester Boserup  Hunter/gatherer population increasing underlying cause of agriculture rather than simply effect Lewis Binford  "marginal habitat" hypothesis  Climate change at the end of the pliestocene encouraged exploitation of seasonal resources in rich areas  Marked increase in population density  Climactic changed forced hu
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