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Lecture 8

ANTH 2140 Lecture 8.docx

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ANTH 2140
Michael Gregg

Lecture 8 October-24-12 11:52 AM  At least 8 different centres for domestication and agriculture  Emergence of social complexity and archaeological correlates of social inequality  Passage looking at social complexity (Txt. Pp. 265)  In most cases, legitimacy is result of combination of consensus and coersion  Social complexity in Canada, consensus or coersion? o Perhaps a little bit of both? o Natives confined to reserves o Not everybody agrees to everything o G20 Summit (dissent?)  Ethnographic studies of hunter/gatherer bands  Egalitarian generally mobile, not sedentary  Age: the older, the more respect you have  Gender: suited skills  Ability: the amount of food you provide  Status: related to the above variables  Everyone has equal access to the resources  Social differentiation not a universal phenomenon o No elaborate burials in Jamon, Japan 12,000 years ago o Elaborate burials elsewhere 25,000 years ago o Does this relate to cognitive skills o Burials in Middle East, burials under floors of homes o Chincorro, Coastal Peru, 250/1500 burials mummified 5000 years ago  Jericho Site o Building of monumental tower o Cut rock ridge o Hundreds of cell like houses o Massive communities built o No social differentiation present o Gender differentiation in division of labour  No single explanation or trajectory for emergence of inequality  Factors affecting: o Access to resources o Access to information o Economic competition out of region o Establishment of bureaucracies o Control of labour o Increase in population  Complex chiefdoms without food producing economy o Pacific northwest o First nations of Canada o Rare domestication of plants and animals  Chiefdom or stratified society o Hierarchy lea
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