ROM Report Due Nov 29
Final Exam Dec. 5th
ACE 001 7-9 PM
Cumulative Exam, focus on past the mid term
List will be posted on Moodle
Hearths Of Agriculture
At least 8 independent centres for domestication of plants and herd animals over the past 12,000
Early fishing and farming villages, of East Asia, Central, North and South America
What shift in resource procurement pattern occurred in many places in the world at the end of
o From a circulating to a radiating resource procurement
Emerging 14C Technology for early pottery use, before agriculture, hunter/gatherer
Dispersal starting in the far East of pottery, China, Russia and Japan
o Non-agricultural peoples
Many early settlements in the East, Pleistocene and Holocene in the major river valleies, (Yellow
and Yangtze River)
Rice from the Yangtze River Basin
o Millet in the Yellow River Basin
o Domesticated serparately
hunter/gatherer encampments includes caves in China
Earliest pottery use about 20K Years ago in China
Thousands of years of occupation in these spaces
Fragments of pottery beakers dated as early as 20 K years ago
Beakers have thought to have been used for cooking
o Perhaps over a fire, mixing pot, but moreover, placed in the fire (dug into coals)
Relationship between early pottery use and the consumption of shellfish
What are the benefits?
o Keep them fresh, alive?
o The shellfish open naturally when cooked
o Shellfish less fragmented since pottery came about
Most likely used for the cooking of rice and other grains
Rice phytoliths recovered from prepottery and pottery bearing levels
o Phytoliths: mineralizations of the cells, Fossilized silica from plat remains
o Size and shape used to distinguish domestic from non domestic
Rice has supported more humans than any other crop in history
Marsh plant, requires plenty of water, must be in a relatively warm climate, many wild species,
several areas of domestication of wild rice, but none earlier than China
First morpheological evidence of domesticated rice from small village in the Yangtze Basin
What is this Morpholigical evidence?
Grains getting larger, inability of the rice to disperse itself, dependence on humans Why would kernels and wooden structures so well preserved?
o Wet lands, houses on stilts, elevated homes
Pigs are also domesticated at Hemudu by 9000 years ago
Pigs also domesticated in the Middle East, dogs, wheat, sheep, cows, barley, goats
What morphological evidence indicates domestication?
o Smaller, no tusks (on pigs), less hairy, less violent, greater ratio of male to female, females
used to breed while butchering of males at younger ages, found outside their natural
What might oars recovered from Hemadu suggest?
o Travelling along the river, fishing, trade with other communities, long distance interaction
Domestication of Rice and millet are independent from one another
Foxtail millet in Yellow river basin
This region is beyond the wild rice habitat
Pit houses, hundreds of storage pits, domesticated dogs, and pig dominated, but also fish,
shellfish, monkey and chicken
Tools used includes, sickles and stone spades, stone axes, harpoons
Peiligang, early neolithic burials in 3 distinct clan clusters
Evidence of the use of musical instruments
Clans suggest differing insignia on the pottery, suggesting differing clans
Yangshao culture, clusters of small pit houses
Banbo, central communal structure
o Grave goods placed with the dead
6000 KYA at Daxi
o Clearly delineated field systems
o Invention of the potters wheel 5200 KYA
o Specialist potters
o What does this suggest?
Trade specialization, economic system is supporting them in some way
Millet and rice farming spread into S.E Asia, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam
Korean Millet 6500 KYA
Rice 4000 KYA
Rice farming reaches Japan ca. 2400 KYA
o Brought by highly developed culture, found in Yayoi
Jamon hunter/fishers 12,500-2300 KYA
o "Cord pattern" Jamon
o Earlier pottery dated to 16000 KYA
o Sedimentary site found at Jamon, sedentary villages of semi-subterranean houses
o Storage pit with shelled chestnuts
o What evidence would you find of fishing?
Fish bones, boats, nets, tackle box,
Why are grooved stones associated with fishing?
o Used to sink the net to get the fish.
o Pottery seems to have functional and symbolic ritual uses.
o Some pottery highly decorated, and ornate
No compelling evidence for social statuses coming from these materials, everyone seems to have
equal access to the resources
Changes when the Yayoi culture comes in, with the arrival of Rice farming ca. 300 BCE Watch towers and defensive ditches, bronze technology, barley, wheat
o Most come in from the Middle East
o Bronze thought to have accompanied the domestication of Horses
Yayoi culture becomes the dominant culture
Classified as second class citizens of Japan until after WWII
More genetic similarities with the Ryukyuan people
Metal work not indigenous to East Asia
Bronze adopted in the Tarim Basin in W China ca. 4000 KYA
Horse and Camel domesticated by this time
What is the earliest evidence of human occupation in S. America? When is this dated, how are
people thought to have arrived there?
o Monte Verde, cluster of circular houses, dated to about 14.6 kYA, evidence of coastal