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Lecture 9

ANTH 2140 Lecture 9.docx

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York University
ANTH 2140
Michael Gregg

Lecture 9 November-14-12 4:28 PM ROM Report Due Nov 29 Final Exam Dec. 5th ACE 001 7-9 PM Cumulative Exam, focus on past the mid term List will be posted on Moodle Hearths Of Agriculture  At least 8 independent centres for domestication of plants and herd animals over the past 12,000 years  Early fishing and farming villages, of East Asia, Central, North and South America  What shift in resource procurement pattern occurred in many places in the world at the end of the Pleistocene? o From a circulating to a radiating resource procurement  Emerging 14C Technology for early pottery use, before agriculture, hunter/gatherer  Dispersal starting in the far East of pottery, China, Russia and Japan o Non-agricultural peoples  Many early settlements in the East, Pleistocene and Holocene in the major river valleies, (Yellow and Yangtze River) o Rice from the Yangtze River Basin o Millet in the Yellow River Basin o Domesticated serparately  hunter/gatherer encampments includes caves in China  Earliest pottery use about 20K Years ago in China  Thousands of years of occupation in these spaces  Fragments of pottery beakers dated as early as 20 K years ago  Beakers have thought to have been used for cooking o Perhaps over a fire, mixing pot, but moreover, placed in the fire (dug into coals)  Relationship between early pottery use and the consumption of shellfish  What are the benefits? o Keep them fresh, alive? o The shellfish open naturally when cooked o Shellfish less fragmented since pottery came about  Most likely used for the cooking of rice and other grains  Rice phytoliths recovered from prepottery and pottery bearing levels o Phytoliths: mineralizations of the cells, Fossilized silica from plat remains o Size and shape used to distinguish domestic from non domestic  Rice has supported more humans than any other crop in history  Marsh plant, requires plenty of water, must be in a relatively warm climate, many wild species, several areas of domestication of wild rice, but none earlier than China  First morpheological evidence of domesticated rice from small village in the Yangtze Basin  What is this Morpholigical evidence? o Grains getting larger, inability of the rice to disperse itself, dependence on humans  Why would kernels and wooden structures so well preserved? o Wet lands, houses on stilts, elevated homes  Pigs are also domesticated at Hemudu by 9000 years ago  Pigs also domesticated in the Middle East, dogs, wheat, sheep, cows, barley, goats  What morphological evidence indicates domestication? o Smaller, no tusks (on pigs), less hairy, less violent, greater ratio of male to female, females used to breed while butchering of males at younger ages, found outside their natural habitat ranges  What might oars recovered from Hemadu suggest? o Travelling along the river, fishing, trade with other communities, long distance interaction between groups  Domestication of Rice and millet are independent from one another  Foxtail millet in Yellow river basin  This region is beyond the wild rice habitat  Pit houses, hundreds of storage pits, domesticated dogs, and pig dominated, but also fish, shellfish, monkey and chicken  Tools used includes, sickles and stone spades, stone axes, harpoons  Peiligang, early neolithic burials in 3 distinct clan clusters  Evidence of the use of musical instruments  Clans suggest differing insignia on the pottery, suggesting differing clans  Yangshao culture, clusters of small pit houses  Banbo, central communal structure o Grave goods placed with the dead  6000 KYA at Daxi o Clearly delineated field systems o Invention of the potters wheel 5200 KYA o Specialist potters o What does this suggest?  Trade specialization, economic system is supporting them in some way  Millet and rice farming spread into S.E Asia, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam  Korean Millet 6500 KYA  Rice 4000 KYA  Rice farming reaches Japan ca. 2400 KYA o Brought by highly developed culture, found in Yayoi  Jamon hunter/fishers 12,500-2300 KYA o "Cord pattern" Jamon o Earlier pottery dated to 16000 KYA o Sedimentary site found at Jamon, sedentary villages of semi-subterranean houses o Storage pit with shelled chestnuts o What evidence would you find of fishing?  Fish bones, boats, nets, tackle box,  Why are grooved stones associated with fishing? o Used to sink the net to get the fish. o Pottery seems to have functional and symbolic ritual uses. o Some pottery highly decorated, and ornate  No compelling evidence for social statuses coming from these materials, everyone seems to have equal access to the resources  Changes when the Yayoi culture comes in, with the arrival of Rice farming ca. 300 BCE  Watch towers and defensive ditches, bronze technology, barley, wheat o Most come in from the Middle East o Bronze thought to have accompanied the domestication of Horses  Yayoi culture becomes the dominant culture  Classified as second class citizens of Japan until after WWII  More genetic similarities with the Ryukyuan people  Metal work not indigenous to East Asia  Bronze adopted in the Tarim Basin in W China ca. 4000 KYA  Horse and Camel domesticated by this time South America  What is the earliest evidence of human occupation in S. America? When is this dated, how are people thought to have arrived there? o Monte Verde, cluster of circular houses, dated to about 14.6 kYA, evidence of coastal
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