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Lecture 10

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York University
ANTH 2140
Michael Gregg

Lecture 10 November-21-12 4:36 PM Dispersal of agriculture and herding into Europe  NAZI PROPAGANDA READING AVAILABLE ON MOODLE Bettina Arnold 1990  EXAM: essay question, tip sheet of terms and what not on the exam, on moodle  Major foods domesticated in the middle east? o Barley, wheat, pigs, cow, sheep, goats  No evidence in Europe for the independent domestication  Colonization of Aegean, Balkans by farmers and herders begins ca. 9 KYA and Danube by 7 KYA  Rockshelter at Akrotiri on Cyprus o Seafaring hunter/gatherer butchered hundreds if pygmy hippos ca. 11,000 years ago, hunted them to extinction, a species unique to Cyprus o Released deer and pigs on the island, maybe cattle ( a debate over the domestication of the cattle) cattle comes before any evidence of domestication on the main land in the middlle east o Unlikely men shared a boat with wild bulls and cattle o May have released young animals  Adoption in Europe a "mosaic process" o Archaeological and genetic evidence demonstrates that spread of farming is not the same everywhere in Europe  Lepinski Vir: Hunter/gathering settlement , along the Danube basin  Adopted pottery but not domesticated plants and animals, bountiful resources, wild auroch, deer, fish, birds  Imginative art and burial practices  2major cultures based on pottery traditions: o Cardial in western Med. o LBK (Linnearbandkeramik) from Paris to the Ukraine  Settlements agricultural and long houses communities  What would we find today? Households, same things in SW Ontario,  Merbach Valley, Germany o 160 long houses in 8 settlemtns o Single settlments interact with other communities o One site occupied for at least 400 years Another community shows longhouses occupied 11 at the same time  Talhiem death pit o Neolithic communities generally egalitarian o 34 met their death violently o Wounds associated with an adzes (stone) o Fued between neighbouring communities o Wide assortment of pottery styles  Sieves: used for cooking, cleaning the food, harvesting grains, separating blood from a carcass, evidence supports separating curds and weigh as the manufacturing of dairy products  Hunters/fishers already have maunfacturing before the neolithic group emerges in the Baltic regions  Northern Europe o Settlemtns like above in Denmark are occupied year round o Pottery similar to Russia and Siberia o Continues use of marine resources after the pottery in neolithic cultures  Megolithic buildings after the dispersal of agriculture in Europe o Stonehenge 5000-3500 KYA o Not shortage of explanations for the origin the site o Perhaps was a celestial observatory to predict certain celestial events o Built in stages over 1500 years  Phase 1 late neolithic ca. 5000 KYA  Phase 2 4500 KYA  Phase 3 4500-3500 KYA  The monument part of a much larger 'ritual landscape' on the Salisbury Plan  Rituals differ form generation to generation  Durington Walls o New excavations of large neolithic settlement o Large amounts of cattle suggesting feasting  Los Miilares, Spain & Newgrange, Ireland o Dispersed households and community encompasses large geographical region with monuments at the centre  Horse and camel domestication, wheeled transtportation, metal working, and smelting copper and bronze  Chemical evidence of horse domestication in Central Asia, Kazakhstan  Botai culture ca. 3500 KYA eneolithic period  Depth of tooth wear occurs on in bridled animals  Camels in middle east and central asia  Increasing interactions and trade over long distances throughout eurasia  Copper smelting Levant 6000BC Earliest smelting  Symbols of Rank, bronze follows, what is bronse? What are its advantages?  Wheeled transportation came about around 4000 BC  Similarities in bronze chariots in central asia and china o What might the burials of the chariots with the owners tell us about social organization?  Bronze adopted in the Tarim Basin in western China form Central A|sia ca. 4000 KYA  Successive waves of migratory nomadic groups into Europe and the middle east in later periods o This happens due to the availability of horses, carriages, and other things that allow long distance travel  Timeline o SLIDES!!!  PPNB 'collapse' o Villages abandoned n Levant prior to pottery Neolithic o Humanly induced environmental degradation o Defforestation o lime produ
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