Methods/ Theoretical frameworks used in reconstructing the past
First Assignment: Due Next Thrusday, Sept 20th. (Submit online, no hard copy)
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Nasca Culture they come from , prehistoric in Peru
Does it inspire wonder?
Does it forward understanding of different cultures
How do you know the articles are reliable?
Sir Charles Lyell 1833
Principles of Geology: an attempt to explain the former changes in the earth's surface
Lyell's Principke of Uniformatarianism: Observable processes such as rain and wind
sedimentation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes were adequate
Geological studies provided vastness of time nesc for natural sel. To occur and allowed Darwin
to devel his theories abt evolution
Focus on the Holocene, Pleistocene and Pliocene
Pliocene 5 mill to 1.8 mill years ago
Pleistocene 1.8 mil to 12 000 y ago
Holocene 12 000 to present day
Read key terms
Where would you begin to locate past human activities on the landscape?
Near the water
Vallies where things would stay where they are instead of moving?
Pastural settlement, higher ground
Look at the soil condition
Open land space, forrest area there would be no room for crops, etc.
Begin with an idea of what to look for
Highly collaborative/expensive endeavor
Convince funding orgs and colleagues of the viability of your project
Collect/record evidence to test hypothesis Find out what's been done before
Start an archive
Review historical docs and maps
Read survey and excavation reports
Read specialist journals
Familiarize yourself with the artifacts from different cultures and time periods
Many artifacts have been associated with different periods of time and different
groups of people
Each type of tools are ass. With different types of species, technological changes
inform our knowledge of interactions through time. Stone tools provide insight into
human cognitive abilities, mobility patterns, subsistence practices.
Its often not clear what objects belong together
"In archaeology, context is everything"
Where objects are found and what they are found with provides basis for interpretation
10 Key Q's
Where and when did modern humans evolve?
Was there interaction and interbreeding with earlier species?
What technologies did prehistoric human groups use?
What do these technologies tell us about human behaviour at different periods?
Where and when did symbolic behaviour first come about?
What does this tell us about the human cognitive abilities and emergence of language?
What does this tell us about human beliefs
When and where di transition from hunt/gathering to food producing economies occur
What changes in social org and technology facilitated changes in subsistence
What are the reasons for development of economic and social inequality and state level
Once you have an idea, decide on a