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Lecture 3


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York University
ANTH 2170
Karen Mc Garry

SEX LOVEAND MARRIAGE LECTURE 3: SEPTEMBER 28TH, 2011 ➔ TripleAAAstyle guide on moodle ➔ REFER TO HANDOUT ➔ TEST 1# OCTOBER 26TH -2 essays not open book (all readings, lectures, tutorial information) NO TUTORIALS. ➔ 6-7 essay questions will be given ➔ 3 marks for grammar and so on ➔ 7 marks for content ➔ REVIEW PPT FOR INFO ➔ THE BODY: ➔ Examples of how observable differences between men and women are thought to be derived from anatomy and from differences in the body itself ➔ Justification for gender difference ➔ How scientists have tended to rely on evolutionary information for example the first reading we had it was argued that sex differences and gender differences have derived from differences in reproductive anatomies ➔ Justify why there is this stereotype that men are naturally promiscuous and women are naturally modest. ➔ Are our contemporary practices rooted in nature? ➔ Dichotomies: stereotypes such as men are rational and women are irrational. ➔ People try to naturalize these stereotypes. Why do we live in a society that persists in pushing this kind of view? ➔ TODAY: ➔ How the body is sculpted and transformed by socio-cultural forces (a.k.a. Nurture)? ➔ Foucault: one example of how bodies are shaped by broader cultural forces instead of biology and so on ➔ KEY CONCEPTS: ➔ Concept of discipline and Docile bodies ➔ Michel Foucault: French historian and philosopher ➔ 1926-1984 ➔ Very much concerned with the history of the so called Western World (industrialized nation states such as much of Europe and NorthAmerica) ➔ Interested in the history and development of ideas as well as social institutions within these contexts ➔ MODERNITY: ➔ a contested term and idea because scholars cannot agree when it started and when it ended ➔ Aperiod between 16-1700 to present day ➔ Aperiod within the constructs of Western societies that is marked by the transition from an agricultural world to a capitalist world ➔ What are the implications of this change? ➔ The catalyst for modernity was the so called age of exploration ➔ Late 1400's, many nations in Europe; England, France, Spain sent out ships of explorers out in search of new land and new forms of wealth (raw materials) ➔ Gold, silver, sugar cane, cotton (colonizing lands and getting access) ➔ 1400's-1800's marked by the rise of colonialism (created world wide systems of expectation) ➔ Set up new colonies and exploited various Indigenous groups based on labor and so on ➔ Institutionalization of slave labor and forced labor ➔ Changes in Europe: industrialization (factories develop, people are starting to migrate to cities to work in the factories, very much helped along by new technological changes). 1800's-steam engines and steam engine power which enables the use of powered machinery (quickly mass produce items).All metal machine tools are implemented. Population growth in large cities. This resulted in overcrowding, poor sanitation, pollution, lack of access to clean water which spread a lot of diseases. Common ones: chicken pox, polio, small pox, tuberculosis etc. Gradual development of stricter class hierarchies. Stronger demarcation between business people and working class. Development of new crimes. Example: not paying your way on a train, vandalism, forms of theft and child labor etc. Changes in family structures in many large urban areas while increasing patriarchal control. Much lower standard of living in general; most people do not have access to clean water, average household found it difficult to meet their needs etc. Political changes: different challenges that arose to absolute monarchies (god given right to rule). Example: French Revolution (new forms of democracy). Higher literacy rates especially in urban areas mostly due to mass circulation and development of newspapers as well as cheaper and more accessible books for people. Growth of mass media: journalism as a profession. ➔ Aperiod that created a crisis of order (increased crime, health issues). Governments assumed it was an increase in chaos. ➔ Achange in the ways in which power operates between 17 and 18 century: DISCIPLINE. Controlling other people physically or ideologically. New form of power and a way of controlling the population. Foucault argues it is a more subtle form of power and that it just refers to the act of training the body to behave in a normative way. Various attempts at mainstream or official behaviour. ➔ Realization that governments needed to come up with new ways for creating an orderly population. Formation of a modern subject. ➔ Foucault argues prior to modernity: physical coercion was used to have power. (Physical punishment).Argues that throughout this period we get the rise of new social institutions which has changed the way in which power operates on the body. Rise of different institutions: like hospitals, modern European inspired military, prison system etc. These are new ways of trying to create orderly disciplined citizens which is calledADOCILE BODY (manipulation of bodies to obey the norms of society) ➔ MODERNITY-MANIPULATION OF BODIES TO CREATE: ➔ docile bodies ➔ Concerned with the development of different institutions: prisons, hospitals, asylums ➔ Disciplined bodies and disciplined subjects ➔ These different institutions are pat of the fabric of our lives; all culturally constructed ways of creating that mod
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