SEX LOVEAND MARRIAGE
LECTURE 4: OCTOBER 5TH 2011
➔ TEST OCTOBER 26THAND QUESTIONS DISTRIBUTED OCTOBER 19TH
➔ FOUCALT'S MAIN IDEAS:
➔ philosopher and historian interested in the history of modernity
➔ Focus on the production of a particular type of bodies (docile bodies). How different sorts of
identities get produced. This implies that bodies are shaped by culture and constructed by cultural
forces. They are not natural entities knowing how to be masculine or feminine. We are shaped and
molded by disciplinary power which is a bi product of modernity. Techniques used to control and
manipulate the body to act in a certain; to become docile which is a normative body. He is
interested In looking at certain agents of discipline which operates in various institutions such as
hospitals and so on. It does not just take place through these places. How this concept of
disciplinary power operates in the Western industrialized contexts? To what extent are they
applicable with non Western contexts? Is it applicable elsewhere? Concept of panopticism: how
he uses the design of the panopticon as a metaphor in the ways thing works: space, constantly
being monitored, surveyed, watched, and managing people in terms of their time (particular
schedules to follow, lights out at a certain hour). Not following this is deviant. Foucault says we
tend to naturalize discipline in the sense that we tend to view a lot of these places such as
hospitals and prisons as natural; apolitical sorts of entities. We do not notice how they are
disciplining our bodies.
➔ What are other ways discipline operates in our society?Answer: religion in some cases, how we
discipline ourselves in terms of our relationships with people...
➔ TODAY: THE ISSUE OF GENDER
➔ Early 1990's, feminist scholars applied his work to the study of gender (in particular based on
womens' bodies). How are womens bodies disciplined? How is it that we have come to value
certain traits (clothing, hair, being thin) and equate them with being feminine?
➔ What are some ideals; normative ideas of femininity within our society? What about masculinity?
How might this be different from ideals of femininity in other societies?
➔ 1 QUESTION: women wear more dresses and heels than anything, bodily appearance (thin
bodies), the want to bear children (must have a family), personality characteristics (nurturing,
soft, kind hearted, girly), notions of space (thin to take up less space), sit with legs crossed,
emotions; being sensitive and understanding and passive, specific sports and jobs being
acceptable (football or construction would not be appropriate). These are also common
stndeotypes within our culture. Ideals of gender areALWAYS CHANGING!
➔ 2 QUESTION: louder, rational, muscular (take more space), athletic, aggressive, less
emotional. These ideals will be different across time and space.
➔ FOUCAULTAND GENDERED IDENTITIES:
➔ Sandra Bartky- argues that idealized femininity predicated upon discipline bodies and particularly
through self-discipline. What might be some examples of how women discipline their own
bodies? (Note- this written based on the Western Culture specifically).
➔ Docile bodies produced through self-discipline and surveillance. How women discipline their
own bodies?Answer: diet, exercise, skin care, ideal feminine body is a youthful body and cannot
look like it is aging, hair removal, clothing, make-up. To create the proper shape to display proper
gestures and movements.
➔ SELF-DISCIPLINE RESULTS: ➔ page 95
➔ Create proper female size and shape, proper gestures and movement, and to create a properly
➔ Like when women are getting married they try to lose weight in order to fit in their wedding dress
(expectations of those at the wedding).
➔ All these ways women try to create this perfec