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ANTH 2170
Karen Mc Garry

SEX LOVEAND MARRIAGE LECTURE NOTES NOVEMBER 9TH 2011 ✗ TESTTIPS: details and context are important ✗ ISSUES ON EXAMS: very few people used examples from the readings, a lot of people did not use historical background context, people need to be specific, need to clearly define terms. ✗ REFER TO HARVARD LINK ON WRITING FOUND ON PPT ✗ TEST 2 IS NOVEMBER 30TH 15 % WORTH. ONE ESSAYAND SHORT ANSWER/IDENTIFYQUESTIONS. LIST OF ESSAYQUESTIONS WILLBE GIVENA WEEK BEFORE. SHORTANSWER--> KEYTERMS PEOPLE CONCEPTS ✗ DATESARE IMPORTANT ✗ NEXTWEEK: need 2 copies of the first 4 pages of your essay. Staple each copy and include your TA'S name. Workshop = 5%. 1 mark for attendance and completion of tasks. No tutorials next week. ✗ LASTWEEK: TAKARAZUKA ✗ Notions of femininity within Japanese society ✗ Gives us a commentary on how some Japanese women use the theater as both actors or as attendees and spectators to negotiate changing roles and ideas about gender within the context of Japanese society ✗ Cultural and historical context ✗ They had very few legal rights (no right to vote, no property rights). Ideal place for Japanese women was in the home. World War II: acted as a stimulus for changing gender roles in Japanese society.After World War II, in 1947, a new constitution was passed and gave the Japanese women a right to vote, the right to run for parliament, the right to go to University and get an education and property rights. It stated men and women were equal and that marriage must not be forced and must be by mutual consent. This has led to a number of reforms over the years: 1955- 2.5% of Japanese college and University enrollments were women, 1965- 22.4% in college and 11.3% in universities, 2005- 50/50% split for men and women in college and university. They experienced globalization. Despite these legal changes, ideologies are still very slow to change. ✗ In many parts of Japan, this idea that women are supposed to be docile and that their place is in the home very much still persists despite these changes. Women today often experience a lot of discrimination in the work place. In Western society we may view this as patriarchal but these women see themselves as equal to men and that their household status is important while those in Western culture think taking care of the house is undervalued. Men often say that the woman is the center of the home. Idea of interdependency in Japanese culture. ✗ Different meanings and interpretations that the revue has for these women.Actors and spectators. ✗ FOR FEMALE PERFORMERS: ✗ Feel experience of performance and kata trains them to be “good wives and mothers” ✗ Yet the process involves subversion of norms (transgression) ✗ (i.e. brought in military to create docile bodies) ✗ Women who played male roles do not become men and are not perceived as men, they take on what in Japanese culture is seen as superficial markers of an ideal man such as: bodily elements (posture, voice). Use these to learn how to become this idealized female persona. What fans see is not an ideal man but a female body that is transgressing boundaries ✗ Assembling this idealized portrait of a man ✗ Very over determined over the top effort ✗ FOR SOME TOURISTS: ✗ Gender becomes a “field of play” ✗ Excessive semiosis ✗ Get tourists from outside of Japan, everyone reacts differently to these performances. Not from Japan you may feel like they try too hard to be a man. We read it as satire and funny. ✗ TAKARAZUKA: ✗ Aspace where contradictory notions of gender are peformed and cultivated ✗ FEMALE SPECTATORS: ✗ Attend to consume “ideal” gender norms which have significant “Western” inflections ✗ But in doing so, they subvert idealized norms ✗ EXAMPLE: the women who watch, their husbands do not even know they are watching these performances because their place is supposed to be in the home. They escape for a girls or friends night ✗ Notions of gender are simultaneously reproduced and very much contested ✗ SEXUALITY (sexual preference) ✗ Western society: 1) Heterosexual 2)Homosexual 3) Bisexual ✗ Alot of studies trying to look for more genetic and hormonal causes ✗ Performed by culture ✗ How culture plays a role in shaping sexual preference and performances of sexuality within different societies ✗ Historically, in Western societies, heterosexuality has been upheld as the norm and has been held not because the majority identify with it but because historically those who identified as this have been given special rights and privileges. 1977- Quebec became the first province that prohibited sexual discrimination ✗ Tend to live in a society where we view ourselves as liberal, accepting and tolerant but even in the context of our own society there is intense homophobia for instance and we live in a society where those whom are gay face a great amount of discrimination ✗ Example: those identified as gay in high school or bisexual, faced 3x the suicide risks and 10x more likely to face bullying or verbal discrimination ✗ These attitudes differ from region to region ✗ Present ourselves as accepting and multicultural, Canada like any other Western industrialized nation is one that privileges heterosexuality ✗ HEGEMONIC MASCULINITY ✗ Coined in 1990 by R.W. Connell (now Raewyn Connell); U. of Sydney ✗ Five features of hegemonic masculinity in contemporary industrialized societies ✗ He identified as male and now after so many years as female ✗ Hegemonic masculinity-->dominant or norm ✗ Aparticular type of masculinity becomes hegemonic when it is widely accepted and inserted in a culture and takes on dominant ideas ✗ Argues: there are a number of features that are assoc
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