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York University
ANTH 2170
Karen Mc Garry

SEX LOVEAND MARIAGE JAN 25 2012 ➔ TEST FEB 15TH- short answer/identify section, one essay question, info sheet next week ➔ NEW ETHNOGRAPHY BOOK for next week will definitely be on the test as well as the one on sex workers ➔ Its hard to convinceAmericans that blood as a fluid has nothing in it that causes ties to be deep and strong ➔ David Schneider ➔ He tried to understand how people tend to use different kinship terms for others ➔ THE CULTURAL CONSTRUCTION OF KINSHIP IN NORTH AMERICA ➔ We recognize kin relations- by blood or through marriage ➔ NORMATIVE BELIEFS ABOUT PEOPLE RELATED BY BLOOD ➔ 1) Share biogenetic substance ➔ 2)Have bond that can't be severed ➔ 3) The degree to which natural substance is shared can be measured ➔ 4) Common identity ➔ Interviews—many people felt that in respect to people whom they are blood related they said they had a bond that could never be severed. Because of the biological continuity—natural ongoing bond. Rooting notions of kinship in biology. ➔ When you use terms like uncle or great grandfather it allows for people to know the biological connection and how far that distance is from you. ➔ Mother is closer than great grandmother for example. ➔ Thinking about our identities as if they are biologically a part of us and natural. For instance: willing to die for your country—strong ties. ➔ NORMATIVE BELIEFS ABOUT PEOPLE RELATED BY MARRIAGE ➔ 1) Not a natural relationship—no shared genes ➔ 2) Can be terminated with no persisting conditions –can divorce the person and have nothing to do with them after wards ➔ 3) Related by relationship alone –related to husband/wife and their relatives, easy to terminate ➔ 4) Code of conduct –marriage itself is governed by a code of conduct, there are rules (no abuse) ➔ THE NUCLEAR FAMILY ISANATURAL UNIT (conducted in the 60's) ➔ 6 main points – 1) Naturally composed of husband wife and children—nuclear family is heterosexual, male and female are married rather than common law 2) Members all live together under the same roof 3) Division of labour in household with certain family members being responsible for certain tasks—sometimes related to age and sex 4) Natural basis of relationship between husband and wife is sexual and for procreation—natural to reproduce, being a childless couple is deviant 5) Sexual intercourse links the family together—sexual intercourse was only proper within the context of marriage 6) Natural content of family relationships is love ➔ LOVE: CONJUGALVERSUS COGNATIC ➔ Conjugal-love relationship between husband and wife ➔ Cognatic- love between parents and children (arises from the result of the blood relationship— share natural substance—derives from intercourse) ➔ Nature or biology constitutes the family ➔ TO THINK ABOUT..... ➔ What might be some of the consequences of thinking about families as “natural?” ➔ Example: people who are gay. They are challenging the place of heterosexual unions and notions. Trying to fit into the idealized model subconsciously perhaps. ➔ This model increasingly gets reinforced ➔ Gay and lesbians families are justified by some politicians as a problem ➔ Not natural because they cannot produce children ➔ Do not want children or do not like children—deviant, weird, odd—people assume you are infertile ➔ NEWANDASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES ➔ Technologies designed to intervene in human reproduction ➔ More recently, also referred to asART's (Assisted Reproductive Technologies) ➔ How do they reproduce or challenge these ideas of family? ➔ 1978-first test tube baby born ➔ EXAMPLES: IVF,Artificial insemination, surrogate parenting, hormonal therapy, PGD- preimplantation genetic diagnosis or ultrasounds and technologies used in pregnancy or to detect pregnancy ➔ The money spent on this shows the importance of biology—still very much a part of the normative ideas of family ➔ Stratified Reproductio
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