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Lecture 4

ANT100Y1Y Lecture 4.pdf

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ANTH 3030
Ivan Prestano

ANT100Y1Y Outline for ARCHAEOLOGY Lecture 4 TOPIC 4 THE EARLIEST TRACES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOURLower Palaeolithic 25 MYA200 KYA Middle Palaeolithic 30030 KYA Upper Palaeolithic 4010 KYASTONE TOOLS THE EARLIEST INDICATIONS OF MATERIAL CULTURECultureThe system of shared beliefs values customs behaviours and artifacts that the members of society use to cope with their world and with one another and that are transmitted from generation to generation through learning Bates and Plog 1976 one of the major behavioural traits which sets humans apart from other animals is the variety and frequency of our manufacture and use of tools and our dependence on them culture is the primary avenue through which humans adapt to their environment tools are and were made of stone wood bone antler skin bark leaves etc but stone tools are by far the most likely to be preserved from all periods since they are resistant to destructionFLAKED STONE TOOLSTHE BASICS based on fracture not ground or carvedrequires homogeneous material without natural graineg flint obsidianwhen force is applied force wave spreads regularly in a conical shape from point of impact a flake is detached from the corearea on the core from which flake was removed is the flake scar or negative flake scareither the flake or the core is used to produce a tool core tool vs flake toolplatformthe point of impact where the flake is detached from the corecortexoriginal exterior of stone corePercussion flaking removal of flakes by impact vs Pressure flaking removal of flakes by pressing rather than strikingDirect percussion hammer strikes core vs indirect percussion hammer strikes punch which is placed against coreHard hammer hammerstone vs soft hammer antler bone or wood billetBifacial retouch on both sides vs unifacial retouch on one sideretouchadditional flaking along the edge of a flake to alter the shapemaking it into a toolOldowan tool tradition Earliest stone tools2515 MYA in Africacrude simple artifacts 4 types 1 Manuportspieces of rock carried to a locality but not modified 2 Hammerstonesrocks battered or pitted 3 Core toolspebbles and rock fragments from which flakes have been struck
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