Essay Questions – 2014 Final Exam
1. Research is not an innocent endeavor. The questions that researchers pursue do
not always come out of thin air, but are frequently grounded in what researchers feel
are ‘important,’ or ‘valuable.’ Drawing on Martin’s “The Egg and the Sperm” reading
and Dr. Nakamura’s lecture on race, (1) demonstrate how research (i.e., questions,
results, analysis, and/or interpretation) is shaped by sociocultural factors, and (2)
discuss the effects of such research on our understanding of gender and race.
2. AbdelShehid and KalmanLamb (2011) write that "policing the line of the
normal and trying to make others conform is one of the most important means by
which power is maintained" (p. 167168). Using examples from the course, illustrate
how this policing and this maintenance of power occurs.
Teasing and ridiculing other boys and men about being a fag is a common way both
athletes and coaches police sexually in sports.
Hazing Rituals Sexual hazing opportunity to terrorize and exclude gay athletes,
while espousing notions of teamwork, mental wellbeing and respect for others.
The label “deviant” placed on one to have power over them, to send them to prisons
or asylums whether deserving or not those who are labelled are harassed.
Media does not reward gay athletes with sporting images, because sport is reserved
Women can compete, even excel in sports as long as they demonstrate that they are
sexually interested in men.
Women athletes have to go to great extend to prove their femininity.
Women displaying hyper femininity in high performance sport.
Stereotype of “mannish lesbian” hold power over women’s participation in high
Canadian sport make and use concept of muscular Christianity to explain hegemonic
masculinity, found in Canadian institution of sport.
Commentators in sports ridiculed gay athletes by talking about their body language,
appearance, and costume rather than their performance. By performing masculine scrip of aggression, competitiveness and strength, they are
participating in systemic homophobia.
Drills practices are exercises in heterosexism
Locker rooms hold potential for homoeroticism
Sport reinforces, naturalizes, and institutionalizes homophobic behaviors.
3. Stuart Hall (1990) wrote that: Identity is “not a mere phantasm either. It is
something – not a mere trick of the imagination. It has its histories – and histories
have their real, material and symbolic effects” (p. 226). Using the themes discussed
in this course, illustrate how identity, be it class, gender, sexuality, race, etc., are not
mere phantasm and have real effects.
Effects of Racism: Mental health; stress from experiencing racism, violence,
Historical racial stereotypes expressed by other students
o Racism Encouraged and supported by the PE teacher, classes select activities that
require students to perform a stereotypical, white version of masculinity –
The instructors became accidental racists and avoided accountability
From the midnineteenth century onwards, a luxuriant antiorientalism flourished on th
e west coast of Canada…leading to negative
stereotypes…” (Course Reader, p.261).
o “Such stereotypes…perpetuated the belief that Chinese men were backward,
incapable of Western styles of thought and culture, and unable to sing and play in a Western fashion. Hence the bodies of Chinese men were marked
as inferior to the ‘white somatic norm’…” (p.261).
o “Chinese men were typically imagined as small, effeminate and weak in
relation to the bodies and masculinities of white men” yet also as cunning,
dangerous and cowardly (p.261).
Formal Curriculum: Delayed race education in BC elementary schools contributed to
the oppression as well as lack of cultural diversity and lack of attention to class and
We makes jokes with Racism and even though One
may not intend to be racist in telling a racebased joke but the effect of