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February 3: Eco-Tourism and Alternative Tourism

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ANTH 3120
Karl Schmid

• FEBRUARY 3 • how are tourism places adjusting to changing times? • what demographic are these places attracting? do they cater towards the traditional Canadian audience: white nuclear families • ▯ Eco-Tourism andAlternative Tourism • issues raised by tourism • sometimes proposed to do it so address and deal with problems that arise from tourism • some of the problems • inequalities that exist between tourists and locals • environmental degradation • cultural appropriation and commodification • can we create a tourism that educates the tourist and encourages them to be more responsible? • we know that tourism is economically important to the global economy • vulnerable, but pervasive  • what does it mean to be ecologically responsible? • how do we get people to benefit? • Encouraging more independent tourists, people who will spread economic benefits more widely rather than vertically • NGOs popping up • NorthAmerican Coordinating Centre for Responsible Tourism • Tourism Concern • group at the forefront, based in London, promoting responsible and sustainable tourism • There is Sustainable Tourism, but can this exist? • if you take your basic tourism course, they may start off the course with this type of concept tourism should follow the principles of environmental, economic, and socio-cultural • sustainability • critics of this form of tourism, including anthropologists, that it didn’t take very long for this idea w these principles that would equally benefit to this idea that can you develop tourism to the point that it can be sustained, can you keep it around? • focus on more ecologically sustainable tourism  • Walmart Tourism • incorporating Green initiatives into its businesses policies • this largely depends on profitability; generating power for its stores reducing transportation costs through more efficiencies • • tends to be a more limited form of this more limited perspective of ecologically sustainability ▯ • International Development Models • realize that a lot of earlier development projects didn’t involve people from the place in terms of their involvement • there are multiple participatory models that have come to International Development • these models fail unless you involve the people in the community more • don’t try to alienate people can really be detrimental; people start to resent it, feeling of hating tourists, etc • ▯ • Pro-Poor Tourism • can tourism relieve poverty? • the poor don’t often have the capital to access the tourism industry • How is tourism ecologically sustainable when the first thing you do is travel by plane? • Tourist bubble: way that tourism is contained and understood in a mental level - excluded other POVs or issues • Niche Tourism: most of the forms of eco tourism (pp, paretic, green, fair trade), they are relatively small • in some ways it aligns with what capitalism is today; going from consumer products that everyone has the same but now specialized products that are for specific demographics  • generally expensive and exclusive, attracting higher end tourists interested in particular cultural capital • packages cultures, lifestyles, and ecosystems as alternative • With eco-tourism specifically connects to understanding the search for the Wild / Wilderness • eco-tourists, trouble with wilderness, idea that wilderness is a cultural-construct, connects well with this material • is eco-tourism is just doing the same thing with the parks? can we extend that? • we’re seeking those same spaces of wilderness, absence of people, symbolic inversion of urban/city versus nature/wild • removing of people • flight from history • create reserves, they are artificial spaces denies a middle ground • • human spaces vs wilderness space • will that work? • how do we live together with nature and find a sustainable and ideological middle ground • not only are we travelling to natural parks, now we’re flying to these reserves, which is even more ecologically destructive ▯ The Environmental Tourist (Film) ▯ • Notes (continued) • Caring Capacity • how many humans can live on a certain piece of land sustainably? • often it’s Western frameworks of environmental governance that are used in these camps • these animals “perform,” become an entertainment complex • who has been dispossessed, who has lost access and use to that land? The Campfire Program in Zimbabwe • • CommunityArea Management Program for Indigenous  • began to resent tourism • saw no benefit from it, why should we have tourism where they’re stopped from going to places wh
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