• FEBRUARY 3
• how are tourism places adjusting to changing times?
• what demographic are these places attracting? do they cater towards the traditional Canadian
audience: white nuclear families
Eco-Tourism andAlternative Tourism
• issues raised by tourism
• sometimes proposed to do it so address and deal with problems that arise from tourism
• some of the problems
• inequalities that exist between tourists and locals
• environmental degradation
• cultural appropriation and commodiﬁcation
• can we create a tourism that educates the tourist and encourages them to be more responsible?
• we know that tourism is economically important to the global economy
• vulnerable, but pervasive
• what does it mean to be ecologically responsible?
• how do we get people to beneﬁt?
• Encouraging more independent tourists, people who will spread economic beneﬁts more
widely rather than vertically
• NGOs popping up
• NorthAmerican Coordinating Centre for Responsible Tourism
• Tourism Concern
• group at the forefront, based in London, promoting responsible and sustainable tourism
• There is Sustainable Tourism, but can this exist?
• if you take your basic tourism course, they may start off the course with this type of concept
tourism should follow the principles of environmental, economic, and socio-cultural
• critics of this form of tourism, including anthropologists, that it didn’t take very long for this
idea w these principles that would equally beneﬁt to this idea that can you develop tourism to
the point that it can be sustained, can you keep it around?
• focus on more ecologically sustainable tourism
• Walmart Tourism
• incorporating Green initiatives into its businesses policies
• this largely depends on proﬁtability; generating power for its stores
reducing transportation costs through more efﬁciencies
• tends to be a more limited form of this more limited perspective of ecologically sustainability
• International Development Models
• realize that a lot of earlier development projects didn’t involve people from the place
in terms of their involvement
• there are multiple participatory models that have come to International Development
• these models fail unless you involve the people in the community more
• don’t try to alienate people
can really be detrimental; people start to resent it, feeling of hating tourists, etc
• Pro-Poor Tourism • can tourism relieve poverty?
• the poor don’t often have the capital to access the tourism industry
• How is tourism ecologically sustainable when the ﬁrst thing you do is travel by plane?
• Tourist bubble: way that tourism is contained and understood in a mental level - excluded other
POVs or issues
• Niche Tourism: most of the forms of eco tourism (pp, paretic, green, fair trade), they are
• in some ways it aligns with what capitalism is today; going from consumer products that
everyone has the same but now specialized products that are for speciﬁc demographics
• generally expensive and exclusive, attracting higher end tourists interested in particular
• packages cultures, lifestyles, and ecosystems as alternative
• With eco-tourism speciﬁcally connects to understanding the search for the Wild / Wilderness
• eco-tourists, trouble with wilderness, idea that wilderness is a cultural-construct, connects well
with this material
• is eco-tourism is just doing the same thing with the parks? can we extend that?
• we’re seeking those same spaces of wilderness, absence of people, symbolic inversion of
urban/city versus nature/wild
• removing of people
• ﬂight from history
• create reserves, they are artiﬁcial spaces
denies a middle ground
• human spaces vs wilderness space
• will that work?
• how do we live together with nature and ﬁnd a sustainable and ideological middle ground
• not only are we travelling to natural parks, now we’re ﬂying to these reserves, which is even
more ecologically destructive
The Environmental Tourist (Film)
• Notes (continued)
• Caring Capacity
• how many humans can live on a certain piece of land sustainably?
• often it’s Western frameworks of environmental governance that are used in these camps
• these animals “perform,” become an entertainment complex
• who has been dispossessed, who has lost access and use to that land?
The Campﬁre Program in Zimbabwe
• CommunityArea Management Program for Indigenous
• began to resent tourism
• saw no beneﬁt from it, why should we have tourism where they’re stopped from going to