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January 6: Globalization, Neocolonialist Tourism, and the 'Champagne Glass World'

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York University
ANTH 3120
Karl Schmid

Globalization, neocolonialist tourism, and the ‘champagne glass world’ • R. Jaakson ◦ takes a stand, if we analyze what has happened, is neo- colonialism • Global divide ◦ North/South, East/West • Colonialism ◦ European expansion and imperialism ◦ over the course of hundreds of years of colonialism, what happened was that there were very strong economic relations between the colonizer and the colonized ◦ still a lot of travel between countries, goods flowing, etc ◦ replicated throughout the world ◦ deliberate design of the colonizing countries, used them for the extraction of raw goods and labour ◦ linguistic connection that becomes shared ◦ economic, social, politica relationships that still exist, replicated into dominance • Development ◦ move into a period of development ▪ maybe the wealthy countries could “assist” these countries to “modernize" ▪ developing countries, idea that they would catch up with the development of the West by replicating their pattern of development ▪ way these European countries developed was through colonialism and NOT through free trade (which is how they’re doing it now), but through forced, protected trade ▪ this modernization example didn’t work except in parts of Asia where countries had more independence from the dominant Euro-American forms of control, i.e. Japan ◦ post-colonialism, there hasn’t been the equalizing nature of development, not successful in that sense ◦ 1960s, top fifth of the world had 30x the income of the bottom tier, now the top 10 percent has 80% ◦ starting to see this changing in parts of the world, but it has been very slow to get out of this colonial pattern • Neo-colonialism ◦ dominance over the economies of these previously colonized countries have continued in similar or different forms ◦ dominant airlines, hotels, cruise ship companies, adopted by countries to increase economy, often manage and control the revenues generated by tourism in “developing” countries ◦ who benefits the most from the tourist industry? ▪ not the host countries ▪ money doesn’t tend to flow to these countries ▪ because of a very good economic strategy on part of the companies that capture most tourist expenditures ▪ starting to see a shift, it’s not so much North/South, they are still following this general pattern however • Modernization Enclave tourism development • Enclave: a space containing people who are socially or culturally different from those surrounding them • Tim Edensor: “‘Organized’ tourist spaces (especially in developing countries) are typified by their ‘enclavic’ character. Here, tourists are characteristically cut off from social contact with the local populace and are shielded from potential offensive sights, sounds, and smells.” • tourism moving into more protective spaces ◦ tossing of people into similar spaces from very different places; people coming into this space for a couple of weeks and never seeing each other again • large, all inclusive resorts, cruise ships, closed off private islands, heavy security areas Possible explanations for tourism enclaves 1. Global-national path of development ◦ encouraged by development agencies ◦ “easier” ◦ World Bank an
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