BCHM 2021 Lecture Notes - Semi-Major And Semi-Minor Axes, Isaac Newton, Orbital Period

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27 Jan 2013
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assignment 1 is due at the end of Wednesday's class, Oct 10. IT'S BEEN
POSTED.
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Early 1600's Galileo Galilei "Doubt is the father of invention." (You have to
observe and you have to doubt.)
Galileo discovered 4 moons of Jupiter, using a telescope.
Catholic church thought that Earth was the center of all creation.
Galileo's observations of Venus showed that Venus went through phases
(waxing, waning) like the moon.
The idea that the sun was the center of the solar system made a lot more
sense than the epicycle stuff. (Galileo)
Galileo was put under house arrest for the rest of his life because the Catholic
church was super pissed and they only formally forgave him in 1992.
Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler
Around the same time as Galileo was doing stuff, these guys {^^} were
doing a bunch of astronomy stuff, too. Tycho was the main dude (strong
temper, got his nose cut off), and when Tycho died his assistant Johannes
inherited all his shit. Johannes was a genius.
1st Kepler Law: Paths are not circular, they are elliptical with the sun at a
focus.
2nd Kepler Law: An imaginary line connecting the sun to any planet sweeps
out equal areas in equal intervals of time.
3rd Kepler Law: The square of the planet's orbital period is proportional to the
cube of its semimajor axis. [p(squared) {IS PROPORTIONAL TO} a(cubed)]
ISSAC NEWTON
1. Every body continues to stay at rest of stay in a state of uniform motion in
a straight line unless it is compelled to change by a force acting on it.
2. When a force F acts on a body of mass m. it produces in it an acceleration
equal to the force divided by the mass. [F=ma]
3. To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
heavy things don't fall faster than lighter things
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