BIOL 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Reverse Transcriptase, Adenine, Peptide

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31 Jan 2013
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Biology 1010
Lecture 2
Biodiversity
Calanolide A:
o Derived from the Bintangor tree
o Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)
o In clinical trials to fight HIV
Tested for anti-tumour activity (anti-cancer)
No effect vs. Cancer cells but success vs. HIV (virus that attacks the human
immune system [T-cells])
Many anti-viral and anti-cancer drugs involve the inhibition of nucleotide synthesis (blocks DNA
from replicating)
o This is usually done by blocking the action of specific enzymes
Viruses enter host cells (DAN/RNA or whole virus) and uses the host cell’s “machinery”
(enzymes) to replicate new viruses
o The virus bursts the host cell and re-infests other cells
o The virus will bind to a specific host cell membrane protein (this is the initiation of the
infection)
o Therefore there is a specific host to virus range
o CENTRAL DOGMA: model that “all cells go through this pattern”
DNA RNA Polypeptide
With REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE: DNA RNA DNA
o Many viruses have an RNA genome (RNA genome carries all of the RNA plus reverse
transcriptase)
When it is all injected, copy DNA (cDNA) is produced in the host’s cytoplasm
These viruses are called retroviruses because they go backwards and create
DNA from RNA
But virus uses mainly host enzymes so they are difficult to kill
RNA transcriptase is usually what the scientists want to destroy
Most Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors are nucleoside derivatives
(analogs)
Bind to an enzyme involved in the synthesis of the cDNA and that
includes nucleotide synthesis and blocks it’s action
Nucleoside analogs can affect post-cell enzymes side effects
NNRTI’s should have less effect on us and just a bunch of effects on the
virus itself
We can get affected because our enzymes are very similar due to the
fact that they are eukaryotes
Biodiversity is good because of things like viagara
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Antigenic Shift
o Two or more viruses combine in a single cell and hybridize to a new (relatively
undetectable) virus (antigen)
o Flu viruses can affect multiple hosts
o More than one flu virus can infect a single cell
I.E. the human flu virus and the avian flu virus into a pig
The proteins (etc.) mix together to create a hybrid virus (TOTALLY NEW)
o Normally, new organisms develop by evolution and this is slow
Mutations selection Yes/No best organism
o “SUPERBUGS” follow the same idea
H1N1, H5N2:
o refers to coat membrane with phospholipids and proteins
o On the inside, genome and RNA
o H is Hemagglutenin (a protein)
o N is neuraminidase
o Number refers to the different strains
o Antigens because antibodies bind to foreign organic molecules like proteins
Recognise and destroy
Antigens are the protein recognized by the antibodies
Levels of Communities
o Cell, Multi-cellular Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere
o Cell smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce interdeopendantly or as part
of a multicellular organism
o Multi-cellular Organism individual consisting of interdependent cells
o Population Group of individuals of the same species that occupy an area
o Community Populations of all species that occupy the same area
o Ecosystem Group of communities interacting with their shared physical environment
(essentially the edge of the water affecting the beach)
o Biosphere All regions of the earth’s crust, waters and atmosphere that sustain life
Diversity of Life
o Note: Protozoa single cellular eukaryotes
Light and Life
o Prototroph can synthesize their own amino acids
o Auxotrophs Must absorb some or all of their own amino acids
What is a species?
o Often organisms that can breed to produce fertile offspring (as a population)
o Bacteria they don’t mate (they divide on their own and by binary fission)
Similar biochemistry (characteristics, DNA)
Based on historical grouping they may have to change names of species in
micro-biology
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