BIOL 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Alternative Splicing, Nucleolus, Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate

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31 Jan 2013
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Lecture 7
KDEL
KDE (Lys NH3
+, Asp COOH, Glu COOH)
o At a low pH, this is the fully protenated state
o Note that acids are proton donors
o At neutral pH, NH3
+, COO -, COO
This means that at this pH, they have potentials to make ionic bonds
Therefore, ionic bonds are important in determining tertiary structures (totally
folded etc.)
o At high pH, NH2, COO -, COO
Apolipoprotein B-100 is in LDL Cholesterol
Cycles
Krebs Cycle- makes NADH
NADH transfers a hydride to the ETC, at the end, the H+ acceptor ends up being final acceptor
Proton Motive Force (in Mitochondria or cell membrane [for Bacteria]) passes through ATP
Synthase for ATP
When O2 is the final e- acceptor, lots of free energy made
o Free Energy = Enthalpy + Entropy
Enthalpy heat or radiant (light) energy lost in a reaction = H
A B + Energy [Exothermic Reaction]
A + Energy B [Endothermic Reaction]
Entropy randomness (chaos) [molecules in the most free and vibrating
condition] = S
More randomness there is more potential for energy
Many single molecules preferred over one large molecule
o More entropy in random than in order
o More ordered state usually requires more energy input
The ability to put things together is good for humans
Free Energy = G (Gibbs free energy)
G = H TS
ΔG = ΔH – TΔS (ΔG = Gprod Greact)
See sheet for graph!
-ΔG = exergonic reactions (exothermic and spontaneous)
o They will proceed in written direction
o ATP ADP + Pi G = -7.3 kcal/mol × K)
ΔG = endergonic reactions (endothermic and require energy)
o ADP + Pi ATP (ΔG = +7.3 kcal/mol × K)
o Large energy transfer from glucose to oxygen is done in steps to protect the organism
O2 is the most efficient and most often used method
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Proton Gradient
Glucose is the original electron donor and it goes in steps to final electron acceptor
Chemiosmosis is the proton gradient going to ATP Synthase to phosphorylate ATP
o ADP to ATP is Oxidative (redox) phosphorylation
Energy and Carbon
Chemo means things like glucose
Organo is organic molecules
Photo is light
Litho is inorganic (NH3, NO3)
Autotroph gets C from CO2
Heterotroph eats things for C
Chemolithotrophs
Live where most other organisms can’t live
Must be archaea or bacteria (as per the prof, said could be wrong)
I.E. Helicobacter pylori and can cause ulcers
Hydrogenase
H2(g) is the electron donor
Hydrogen breaks down to H+ + e-
We must know HYDROGENASE
o It also reduces NAD+ to NADH
Q stands for ubiquinone or coenzyme Q
o This is an electron carrier in the membrane
o Also used in the ETC
Cyt are cytocromes
o Many of them (a, b, c etc.)
o Also found in the ETC
o Proteins + Fe or Fe-S
The iron is where the electrons are passed to and from
Essentially the protein holds a metal and the electron gets picked up (so the
metal iron is reduced etc.)
Calvin Cycle
Often called the dark reactions because they are often associated with phototrophs
Reduces CO2 to a Carbohydrate (organic substances)
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