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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Photosynthesis.docx

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BIOL 1000
Michael Gadsden

Lecture 7 KDEL  KDE  (Lys – NH , Asp – COOH, Glu – COOH) 3 o At a low pH, this is the fully protenated state o Note that acids are proton donors + - – o At neutral pH, NH ,3COO , COO  This means that at this pH, they have potentials to make ionic bonds  Therefore, ionic bonds are important in determining tertiary structures (totally folded etc.) o At high pH, NH ,2COO , COO –  Apolipoprotein B-100 is in LDL Cholesterol Cycles  Krebs Cycle- makes NADH  NADH transfers a hydride to the ETC, at the end, the H acceptor ends up being final acceptor  Proton Motive Force (in Mitochondria or cell membrane [for Bacteria]) passes through ATP Synthase for ATP  When O is2the final e acceptor, lots of free energy made o Free Energy = Enthalpy + Entropy  Enthalpy – heat or radiant (light) energy lost in a reaction = H  A  B + Energy [Exothermic Reaction]  A + Energy  B [Endothermic Reaction]  Entropy – randomness (chaos) [molecules in the most free and vibrating condition] = S  More randomness there is more potential for energy  Many single molecules preferred over one large molecule o More entropy in random than in order o More ordered state usually requires more energy input  The ability to put things together is good for humans  Free Energy = G (Gibbs free energy)  G = H – TS  ΔG = ΔH – TΔS (ΔG = G prod– Greact  See sheet for graph!  -ΔG = exergonic reactions (exothermic and spontaneous) o They will proceed in written direction o ATP ADP + P (Δi = -7.3 kc/mol × K  ΔG = endergonic reactions (endothermic and require energy) o ADP + P  ATP (ΔG = +7.3 kc/l ) i mol × K o Large energy transfer from glucose to oxygen is done in steps to protect the organism  O2is the most efficient and most often used method Proton Gradient  Glucose is the original electron donor and it goes in steps to final electron acceptor  Chemiosmosis is the proton gradient going to ATP Synthase to phosphorylate ATP o ADP to ATP is Oxidative (redox) phosphorylation Energy and Carbon  Chemo means things like glucose  Organo is organic molecules  Photo is light  Litho is inorganic (3H , 3O )  Autotroph gets C from CO 2  Heterotroph eats things for C Chemolithotrophs  Live where most other organisms can’t live  Must be archaea or bacteria (as per the prof, said could be wrong)  I.E. Helicobacter pylori and can cause ulcers Hydrogenase  H is the electron donor 2(g) + -  Hydrogen breaks down to H + e  We must know HYDROGENASE o It also reduces NAD to NADH  Q stands for ubiquinone or coenzyme Q o This is an electron carrier in the membrane o Also used in the ETC  Cyt are cytocromes o Many of them (a, b, c etc.) o Also found in the ETC o Proteins + Fe or Fe-S  The iron is where the electrons are passed to and from  Essentially the protein holds a metal and the electron gets picked up (so the metal – iron – is reduced etc.) Calvin Cycle  Often called the dark reactions because they are often associated with phototrophs  Reduces CO to a Carbohydrate (organic substances) 2  G3P = Glucose 3 Phosphate  NADPH provides e and H 2  ATP provides additional energy  Carbon fixation involves capturing CO with the key enzyme rubisco (RuBP 2 carboxylase/oxygenase)  Process o 3 CO2enter o Binds to RuBP (P – 5C – P) and then is split to 3-phosphoglycerate (3C – P) o 6 ATP react and NADPH is oxidized o Becomes G3P that leaves but some stay as RuBP for the cucle Rubisco  Lots of phototrophs use this to break down into inorganic molecules  Phototrophs  Photosynthesis  Chloroplasts in eukaryots  Chlorophyll collects light Phototr
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