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York University
BIOL 1000
Julie Clark

evolution lecture continuation + Cells part 1  traits that benefits species/individuals just pass down (you cannot select which traits you want)  to test whether or not a cell is the smallest living component, isolate their components to see if they can live on their own  why cells need carbon: basis of every organic molecules (backbone)  Eukaryotic cells - true nucleus  prokaryotes - not true nucleus  bacteria and archaea are not prokaryotes, they are prokaryotic cells  bacteria and archaea are the most diverse cells out there, more than any eukaryotic cells  prokaryotic organisms, typically a single circular chromosome  prokaryotes can have plasmids - extra chromosomal DNA. Not associated with bacterial chromosome in nucleoid  prokayotic cells have cell wall - protects cell, adds rigidity  penecilin looks to break the cells walls of cell and destroy them  capsules protect prokaryotes  flagellum - bacteria and archae both have flagella that work differently have the same function - locomotory function  pili allow cells to stick to things - way for plasmids to be transferred from one cell to another Eutaryotic cells  cytoplasm = cytosol and all organelles (except nucleus)  *go through images of cells - mitochondria, nucleus, ER, rough ER, smooth ER, golgi complex - understand structure and function  understand plant cell as well - structure and function  basic structures and functions of plant and animal cells - don't do microtubules, filaments Endomembrane systen  membrane - phospholipid bilayer  What is an organelle - membrane bound, in a eukaryotic cell, specialized function, suspended in the cytoplasm nucleus  separates DNA from cytoplasm  DNA is packaged in chromatin  rRNA packaged in nucleolus-make large and small ribosomal subunits Chromatin  euchromatin-gene activation possible  heterochrmatin-tightly packed and proteins that activate these genes can't access the genes Eutaryotic DNA packaging Histones: organizing the DNA  nucleosome consist of 8 histones  nucleosomes connected by linker  H1 connects nucleosomes to linkers  diameter of nucleosomes = 10 micro meter Nonhistones: associated with Gene regulation  make genes accessible nuclear pores  go accross double membr
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