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BIOL 1500
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Biology Chapter 12 Notes: Plant and Fungi Diversification • Plants are organisms that are fixed in place; multicellular eukaryote that produces its own food by photosynthesis and has an embryo that develops within the protected environment of the female parent; varies in size • Other photosynthetic eukaryotes include species of algae (seaweed); sharp contrast to most plants • A plant needs nitrogen to build proteins; phosphorus to make ATP; salts to create concentration gradients • Plants use roots to obtain these needed substances from the soil; plants have a shoot that consists of a stem and leaves; the stem supports the main photosynthetic organ of a plant (its leaves) • Some plants have no chlorophyll; lives as parasites instead; Dodder is a parasitic plant that gets sugar from host plants it grows on • If the seed sprouts (germinates) shade, the young plant needs to somehow get to the nearest sunny spot so it grows towards the direction of the sun • Sexual reproduction can be a challenge for plants and have various tactics; resisting predators are another challenge for plants (thorns and chemicals are used to deter predators); earliest plants were the first multicellular organisms to live on land; were non- vascular plants (no vessels to transport water and nutrients); evolutionary tree of plants show the stages of development (vessels, seeds, flowers) Non Vascular Plants • Water algae were multicellular and obtained water and nutrients with osmosis; sea lettuce and stone worts looked like plants; coleochaetes can withstand exposure to air, survie when water level in lake falls and leaves them high and dry (closest relative to plants) and drying resistance was the first evolutionary step that plants took to make its way to land • First land plants appeared about 475 million years ago; nothing on land for other land organisms to eat; first land plants set the diversity for plant life and paved the way for the diversification of land animals; two initial problems were they had trouble resisting from gravity and faced it by growing close to the ground; other problem was drying out and it was solved by developing a waxy layer called a cuticle that covers their leaves and stems • Earliest land platns were low-growing; had no structures that could transport water and nutrients from soil upward into the plant; diffusion is a slow process and plants that rely on this only can grow a few centimetres tall; three groups of plants (liverworts, hornworts and mosses) still use diffusion to move substances (bryophytes) and are considered non-vascular • Liverworts and hornworts are small, simple plants that grow into moist and shady places that resemble flattened moss; grow in moist and shady places and resembles flattened moss • Mosses are more familiar; over 12,000 s
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